The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensibility to cold using a psychological procedure. The results of the investigation were as follows: 1) The sensibility to cold scale (SCS) was composed of three factors. Factor 1 was recognition and awareness of cold stimulus applied to the human body (Cronbach's α=0.89). Factor 2 was the sense of incompatibility of cold with bodily comfort (α=0.94). Factor 3 was the seriousness of cold exposure to bodily well-being (α=0.80). This scale was similar to the concept of sensibility to cold stimulus as defined by Kujima (1966) who suggested that the results should be reproduced in additional studies. 2) The score of SCS for girls was higher score than for boys, but there were boys who had a higher score than the mean score for girls. 3) In this study, the relationship between the score of SCS and body composition was not identified. 4) The relationship between the score of SCS and the score of Todai Health Index was examined. The score of SCS for boys was related to the score of "Oral & Anal Complaint", "Alimentary Complaint" and "Irregularity of daily life". For girls, the score of SCS was related to the score of "Inclination to complain".
The aim of present study was to examine body concern and satisfactions in 191 female university students and their relationships with measured body composition and circumferences of selected body parts. Body composition and circumference measurements of participants were conducted after obtaining their consent. Body concern and satisfaction were determined using the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Body parts and General subscales from the Body Satisfaction Scales (BSS). Increase in body composition and circumferences were associated with decrease in body concern and satisfaction. Increase in body size, including circumferences did not decrease whole body satisfaction but increased dissatisfaction at the abdominal, arm and thigh regions.
We examined the effects of visual fatigue on reaction times measured in a visual pursuit task, conducting experiments in which the participants were asked to take, everyday for 28 days, supplemental food capsules containing 6mg astaxanthin that has been reported to improve visual fatigue. We measured reaction times at each of 1st, 14th and 28th day for the 28-day intake of astaxanthin. Our results showed that, regardless of the length of the intake period for astaxanthin, the reaction times became shorter at the early trials/blocks of the reaction time task than those at the late trials/blocks during a long lasting, 500 trial experimental session. Furthermore, the reaction times became to be shorter at the late stages (14th and 28th day) of the astaxanthin intake period than those at the early stage (1st day). These results suggest that reaction times change with increasing visual fatigue and that reaction time is a reliable measure for estimating visual fatigue.
In evolutionary perspective, pleasant and unpleasant emotions designed to influence our behavior should be reflected in physiological responses. In this study, pleasant and unpleasant emotional s-IgA responses to olfactory stimuli were investigated. The results revealed that an increase in s-IgA concentration was induced by pleasant olfactory stimuli, while unpleasant olfactory stimuli did not change in s-IgA concentration. These data support the hypothesis that pleasant emotional state may enhance the beneficial effects on immune system. Therefore, s-IgA measurement could offer new insights for the understanding of emotional influence.
This experiment evaluates the effectiveness of the drag of sand for strength training. Twenty cm depth of quartz sand was placed in a large box and five subjects performed knee extension/flexion against the sand drag and on an isokinetic machine at three velocities, 30, 60, and 120 degrees/sec. Electromyograms of vastus laterlis, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior were taken, and the changes of the knee joint in motion were measured. The exercises with the sand and the machine were similar in the changing velocity and antagonist's activity. The muscle activity with the sand exercise was 30 to 50% less than with the machine. However, the intensity of the exercises with the sand was at a positive level for strength training, especially, the high velocity exercise was similar with the machine exercises. These findings suggest the exercise training using sand resistance can cause the same effect as the isokinetic training.
The purposes of this study include observation of skin temperature, skin blood flow, blood flow waves from the skin, subjective reactions, etc. during and after implementation of closed foot bath as well as heat application on the antebrachial region, in order to compare their differences and review the influence of the heat application on the antebrachial region to autonomic activities. In accordance with the change in blood flow waves from the skin, it is assumed that implementation of the heat application on the antebrachial region and closed foot bath might reduce sympathetic nerve activities that control angiokinesis during heating and up to 60 minutes after heating. Furthermore, in accordance with the POMS results, "fatigue" commonly reduced in two heated groups and the warmth increased after heating in all parts including non-heated parts.