Although there have thus far been so many studies of emotion focusing on the specific brain structures such as amygdala, and clinical ones, the neural basis of emotion underlying human nature has not yet been investigated particularly from its adaptive mechanism. Our recent brain imaging studies on the neural basis of maternal love, nostalgic memory and self-esteem provided some important perspectives of human nature. That is, the neural basis of maternal love is based on the integration of dopamine reward system and interoceptive system in the orbitofrontal cortex, suggesting strong mother's mind-body attachment with her own infant. Moreover, nostalgic memory retrieval associated with warm feelings is based on the mutual interaction between dopamine reward system and hippocampal memory system, suggesting its implications for human high adaptability. In addition, the neural mechanism for protection of self-esteem is based on the brain network consisting of memory, cognition and emotion-related areas, consisting with the so-called somatic marker theory. These neural mechanisms are highly essential for the self-preservation and the species-preservation.
There are few longitudinal studies on physique and motor ability in young children. In this study, using longitudinal data on physique and motor ability during 3 years of early childhood, we applied a secondary polynomial to growth and development data to investigate the effects of physical growth on the development of motor ability. The subjects were 206 pre-school children. The results showed that there were not relationships between the growth tendency in physique and development rate of motor ability among three years old and four years old, four years old and five years old, and three years old and five years old.
This study examined the effect of physical activity on physical strength between students at an urban elementary school and those at a rural elementary school. The purpose of this study was to make clear the effect of lifestyle on physical strength. The results of the questionnaire suggest a large difference in lifestyle between the students at the two schools. No difference was found in the results of the physical fitness test. Overall, the boys at an urban and the girls at a rural elementary school scored higher for physical activity. The results of this study suggest that exercise habits are a factor in promoting physical strength. It was suggested that both the level of physical education activity at the school and the participation in after school sports programs were important.
We examined physical fitness adaptation after six weeks of snow shovelling using different types of shovels. Thirty-three subjects participated in this study and were divided two groups: normal shovel group and less-workload shovel (UD-shovel) group. Grip strength, vertical jump, 10 m obstacle walking, chair rising test, lactate threshold and body mass were measured before and after six weeks of snow shovelling. All measurements showed no significant differences between the groups. The chair rising test and ten meter obstacle walking were significantly at main effects. These values were higher in the after period than in the before period. But there were no significant differences at main effects in grip strength, vertical jump, lactate threshold and body mass. These results suggest that six weeks of snow shovelling may not affect upper body strength and aerobic capacity, but may affect lower body and muscle of trunk strength, power, agility, balance and coordination. These effects were not different if using normal shovels or UD-shovels.