The purpose of this study was to estimate daily body postures using accelerometers. First, we obtained reference values for body postures (i.e., lying (supine, on the side, and prone), sitting, standing) using two triaxial accelerometers. Second, we estimated body postures for 24 h using these reference values. We assessed the concordance rate of daytime body postures using a lifetime survey and reference values. The concordance rate for continued maintenance of body postures for less than 5 min was significantly low. That was attributed to omissions from the lifetime survey. The rate of supine lying was significantly higher than side or prone lying. The reference value obtained using two triaxial accelerometers might offer a useful parameter to assess daily body postures.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between usual walking speed measured in daily living and walking parameters. Twenty one walking parameters were measured with plate sensors, and walking speed in daily living with accelerometers in 157 Japanese females. Correlation analysis showed that walking speed in daily living is more related to age than walking speed at a short distance. Also, walking length, walking stride and step length of the subjects with walking speed under 3.60 km/h, were shorter than those with speed over 3.60 km/h. These results indicate that measurement of walking speed in daily living can effectively monitor the risk of decline in daily-walking ability.
A physically active lifestyle, i.e., increasing physical activity (PA) or reducing sedentary behavior, and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness independently have numerous health benefits. PA for promoting good health should be prescribed based on the exercise intensity, duration, and frequency. Several consensus statements recommend engaging in daily PA at an intensity of more than three metabolic equivalents to reduce the risk of major chronic diseases. However, the effects of increasing PA using different PA indicators (e.g., intensity or duration) on several health outcomes remain unclear. This paper highlighted habitual PA prescription for eliciting a more desirable physiological adaptation for preventing chronic diseases, while focusing on recent studies regarding PA intensity and epoch length.
In the present review, we hypothesized and demonstrated that (1) the total skeletal muscle mass and its distribution in adolescents (Tanner stage ≥ 2) was mostly similar to that in adults; (2) exercise training with an adequate diet led to an increase in both skeletal muscle mass and internal organ mass; and (3) although the organ tissue metabolic rate (kcal/day/kg) in children had increased due to the energy cost of growth and development, the high resting energy expenditure in college Sumo wrestlers (> 2000 kcal/day) can be attributed to the presence of a larger absolute amount of metabolically active tissue.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to the control of body temperature and body fatness, depending on its thermogenic activity, in small rodents. Since the rediscovery of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, its physiological roles have been explored by both experimental and clinical studies. The activity of human BAT increases in response to acute cold exposure and is maximal in winter. Repeated cold exposure recruits BAT, thereby decreasing body fatness. The effects of cold can be mimicked by some food ingredients which have agonistic activities at temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels. These advances have opened up a novel insight into thermoregulatory mechanisms and a new opportunity for the development of anti-obesity regimens.