The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of 12-week walking bicycle (WB) exercise on lower limb muscle strength and aerobic capacity in 16 middle-to-older aged adults with mild metabolic disorders. Of the 16 subjects, 8 completed the WB exercise (WB group); the remaining 8 subjects served as the control group. There were significant improvements in lower limb muscle strength and aerobic capacity in the WB group (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. The changes in lower limb muscle strength were significantly associated with the average duration of WB exercise (p < 0.05). These results suggest that WB exercise is a beneficial exercise modality and is associated with health benefits.
In this study, we investigated the effect of projecting a face image to a curved surface on brain activity related to facial expression cognition. The participants observed the facial expression images that appear on the curved surface (cylinder) and the flat surface. The EEG was measured, and event-related potentials such as N170, VPP and LPP, which are considered to reflect composition processing of the facial expression, were compared between the surface conditions. As a result, the N170 latency under curved surface condition was significantly longer than that of the flat surface condition. Similar trend was observed in VPP. These results suggested that the face image projected on the curved surface imposes more mental load on the observer while the observation.