Many studies on the effects of light have been conducted in the field of physiological anthropology. It is generally considered that melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are involved in non-visual functions, whereas rods and cones contribute to visual functions or the perception of brightness and color. In recent years, however, it has become increasingly clear that ipRGCs also contribute to visual functions. This article reviews recent studies on the contribution of ipRGCs to visual functions, including behavioral experiments in animals, psychophysical studies in humans using the silent substitution method, and (fMRI) studies of the visual cortex.
A retinal prosthesis is a medical device implanted into the eye where photoreceptor cells have degenerated, such as in retinitis pigmentosa. The implant generates phosphenes by electrically stimulating the remaining retinal neurons. Currently, three methods of stimulation have been developed: epiretinal stimulation, subretinal stimulation, and suprachoroidal stimulation. Some of the implants have received FDA approval and CE mark. The visual function achieved by the current retinal prosthesis is still far from normal vision, but it is expected to evolve to help patients in their daily lives. The prospects for future research and development were discussed.
The airflow velocity in clothing was measured by using the bi-directional airflow sensor. The clothing condition U was similar to a naked body. Under clothing conditions S and T, subjects wore shirts and skirts. The fabric of the skirt was thin for the former and thick for the latter. Eight female subjects participated in Experiment 1. Under the moving condition W, the subject walked. Under the moving condition C, the subject stood on the cart, and the experimenter pushed the cart to move. The airflow inside the skirt was affected by the skirt fabric, moving speed, walking movement, and pumping effect. Six adult female subjects participated in Experiment 2. The andon effect was observed under condition S and not under condition T.