This report was designed to investigate the effect of color on human emotional responses and performance. Three colors, red, yellow and purple were chosen for the experiment. Subjects were 18 female undergraduate students. They were asked to walk freely within 5m^2 area for 30s while wearing apparel of chosen color, such as a vest. Heart rate(HR), number of steps, walking pattern, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI) during the task were determined while wearing apparel of each of three colors. Results were as follows: (1)There were no significant differences between HR and the number of steps, regardless of color. (2)With apparel of red and yellow, the front and back were used equally, while with purple, the back was used the more. (3)STAI scores for purple were highest, with significant difference between ordinary and yellow. Scores of pleasantness for red and yellow were highyer than for purple, and the score of relax feeling was highyer for yellow than for purple. The scores of shame were nearly equal for all of the colors tested. These results suggest that different color of apparel have effect emotional and spacial responses.
Heart rate variations of six males and six females during total sleep deprivation were examined. The respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during steady-state respirations where the tidal volume and frequency of the respirations were controlled at either 1500ml / 0.10Hz or 1000ml / 0.25Hz. The RSA approach was compared with conventional HRV spectral analysis. The mean heart rate decreased significantly during the period of sleep deprivation in both male and female subjects. The RSA amplitudes in male subjects significantly decreased during the period of sleep deprivation under both respiratory conditions. However, the significant decreases were not observed in female subjects although a decrease was observed. A correlation coefficient between the mean heart rate and RSA (0.1Hz) / RSA (0.25Hz) ratio decreased during sleep deprivation. Although a similar decrease was observed on the HRV spectral components, the difference between control and sleep deprivatiedon was not as clear as the results of RSA amplitudes. Therefore the results that the RSA measurement furnished a higher accuracy in the estimation of autonomic activities compare with the approach of conventional HRV spectral analysis.
The effects of chikufujin and sunoko for sleep in a hot environment were observed. In experiment I, the bedding conditions were no cover (N), chikufujin and toweling blanket (C) and toweling blanket (T). The 11 young female subjects were exposed to 28.5℃ (RH70%). In experiment II, sunoko (S) and mattress (M) were examined under 33℃ (RH6O%) using 7 young females. The period of each conditions was 30 minutes. Bed climate, skin temperature, oral temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and subjective sensations were measured. In experiment I, the differences of thermal effect between condition C and T was not clear except for the left arm area at which chikufujin was set. In experiment II, condition S showed the advantages compared with condition M in the temperature and humidity nearby the body, heart rate and subjective sensations.
In order to design infant's shoes easy to walk, morphological data measured in upright standing state and footprints collected in walking were studied for 49 infants of 1 to 6 years old. The measurement of the foot part and that of the hand part show that the growth curves are strikingly similar to each other for each build structure. The footstep and the stride increase with the age, and the increase is great in the period of from 2 years old to 4 years old . The walking angle tends to turn outward according to the formation of the plantar arch, and the formation of the plantar arch is httle for an examinee free from the outward turning tendency of the walking angle. The grounding area of the sole of the foot is large for the right foot in upright standing posture and large for the left foot in walking state. The path of the gravity center of infant in walking does not correctly pass through the metatarsal fibula revealing the incomplete state of the center walking.
Temporal resolution of normal hearing listeners was investigated in a gapdetection paradigm. Temporal gap detection thresholds were determined for bandpass noise signals as a function of center frequency under a fixed bandwidth or a fixed ratio of bandwidth per its center frequency. Detection performance did not improve with increasing center fixed bandwidth. However, if did improve significangly with increasing center frequency under a fixed ratio of bandwidth to center frequency. As a next step, gap detection thresholds were measuredfor bandpass noise signals in which the number and it were changed. The result indicates that gap detection performance is determined by them. These results agree with previous findings where a bandpass noise or a complex tone was used as a signal.
This study aims to clarify the desirable material and yarn structure to increase heat loss and prevent knitted fabrics for active sportswear from clinging to the skin by using simulator. We study phenomenon of heat loss from the viewpoint of absorption and evaporation, permeability, and ventilation. As a result, the material and yarn structure to increase heat loss and prevent clothing from clinging to the skin are as follows:material is 100% polyester, outer surface of the yarn is most covered by filaments, and a heavy-denier filament is included among the yarn.
Maximum upper limb muscular strength was measured at the posture assuming operations of a cabinet in order to examine a usability of furniture in the old aged peoples. Subjects were 10 males and 10 females each in three age groups of 20 to 29 years old, 60 to 69 years old and 70 to 79 years old, therefore, totally 60. Operation conditions were nine such as pulling, pushing and sliding which simulated opening and shutting work of drawer or door of a cabinet. Maximum upper limb muscular strength(MMS) was measured in totaled 27 conditions which consisted of nine operations combined with three heights of 450,900 and 1350mm. A posture was not instructed at the measurement of MMS. Maximum hand grip strength(MGS) was also measured at standing position. Age differences in MMS were obvious in males and females between young and old subjects. However, it was suggested that MMS was affected by a individually selected posture in simulated operations of a cabinet. The following points which should be considered were suggested; (1)The optimum height of the cabinet was 900mm in all conditions and height over 1350mm should be avoided. (2)MMS obtained at 450mm of the cabinet was lowered in females caused by a posture which was seen in daily life in operating cabinet at lower position. (3)The relationship between MMS and height condition of the cabinet was independent on the difference in body height of the subjects. (4)MMS obtained in each operating condition of cabinet was not always refleeted by MGS, especially in females.