The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pattern A behavior (Type A) and self-efficacy (SE) on the settings of regulation of exercise intensity and evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness using rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Fifty-four healthy women, between 31 and 59 years of age, performed a graded cycling test for the determination of anaerobic threshold (AT) and oxygen uptake (VO_<2max>), and their VO_<2max> were predicted by the method using RPE. The pattern A behavior and SE of the subjects were evaluated by the brief questionnaire methods. The means of the RPE at AT were approximately 12 to 13 independent of the scores of A and SE. However, the scores of Type A (r=-0.329) and SE (r=-0.370) correlated weakly but significantly with the differences between the predicted and measured VO_<2max>. When the predicted VO_<2max>were corrected based on the scores of Type A and SE, the accuracy in the predicted values increased remarkably. It is suggested that the findings of this study are useful information in the exercise prescription settings.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differences of postural control characteristics in static and dynamic balance tests between healthy younger and elderly people. The subjects were 39 young and 51 elderly community-dwelling men and women had no symptoms of dizziness or imbalance. The static balance test was designed provide measures of body sway area under three different conditions: with eyes open (EO), with eyes closed (EC), and with visual feedback (VF) about the performance from the computer screen. The dynamic balance tests comprised measurements of:(a) rhythmic body sway from side to and anterior-posterior direction to 50% of the subject's theoretical limits-of-stability (LOS), (b) body sway to 8-points positioned in a ellipse, the perimeter of which corresponds to 75% of the LOS. Data reflecting the average magnitude of the movement path was expressed as a percentage of the LOS (%LOS). No significant differences in the maximum percentage area (% Max Area) under three different conditions were found between the younger and elderly people. Significant differences, however, were found between the LOS percentage of rhythmic or body sway to 8-points in elderly and those in younger people (p< 0.05-0.01). The results suggest that the dynamic balance measurements studied are more sensitive to unrelated changes in elderly people than the static balance measures.
The relationship between the strength (or duration) of physical exercise and a measure of mathematical ability (the calculating score) was examined. verified that the calculating score in the case of exercise (80W, 10minutes) was higher than that in the case of no exercise. It was found that the calculating score went up when the strength of physical exercise was modest (physical exercise of 5, 10 and 15 minutes), but the score went down when the strength was excessive. Next the relationship between the duration of physical exercise and the calculating score was investigated. It was shown that the strength of five minutes of exercise, where the calculating score became highest, was stronger than that of ten or fifteen minutes of exercise. The relationship between the heart rate and the calculating score was also shown.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the nature of information receiving and lost-behavior of perceptional impairments based on analyzing experiments in public environment. Though auditory impairments have similar mature to health person, they have the tendency to be lost and repeat the same simple behavior without understanding their situation by auditory by auditory information. Visual impairments have the tendency to prefer taking information from objects and machines which they can predict easily to sign when they are lost in a way.