The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and life factors in the independent elderly living in regional cities. Data were collected from 1,269 people aged 60 or more in 7 regional cities (and towns). Seventeen question items representing 4 life-factors were selected and a questionnaire including a geriatric depression scale (GDS) was administered to them. Hayashi's quantification Theory (type I) was used to examine the relationship between depression and life factors. The main results were as follows: 1) Females have higher depression than males and people with a higher age-stage have higher depression. 2) Satisfaction to economical state and self-recognition to physical fitness and health relate to depression. 3) Also, going out, volunteer experience, and having best friends are important factors relating to depression.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses and thermal sensations of subjects to a hot water bottle and an electric blanket, and compare them with controls. Nine healthy students (21.04±3.0 years old) participated in the study. The electric blanket raised the skin temperature of the whole body. The subjects became more thirsty when using the electric blanket than when using the hot water bottle (p<0.01). The hot water bottle stimulated parasympathetic activity, and resulted in a significant thermal increase in comparison with the control and the electric blanket (p<0.01).
The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of life style and health-status of male students at a National College of Technology. A questionnaire consisting of 75 items on life style and health-status was administered to 581 healthy male students aged 15 to 20 years. The frequencies and proportions for each item were computed, and the proportion-differences were examined using one-way analysis of variance. Quite a few students have some exercise habit, and they exercise more than three or four days in a week and/or more than ninety minutes at a time. Many students have regular dietary habits, but have likes and dislikes for food, between-meal snacks, and midnight snacks. Many of them do not take care of nutritional balance and eat meat, fish, meat substitutes, and a confectionery more than three or four times in a week. The ratio of those drinkingj uice 3-4 times or more every day is high. Many students have club activities, housework, and a part-time job after school. It is not unusual for them to go to bed at midnight 0-1 o'clock and rise at 7-8 o'clock. There are many students whose degree of subjective health is low. Care for illness and injury is a problem. Participation in outdoor physical activity and club activities are more less likely than when they were in childhood and junior high school, and there are some students who suffer from some disease. Guidance regarding meal intake, the importance of nutritional balance, rules of life style, and consideration to health may be important for male students at the National College of Technology.
We investigated the effects of cedrol, which is a sesquiterpene alcohol contained in cedarwood oil, on sleep using overnight polysomnography. This study included 11 healthy females (24.5±2.1 years). Days 1 and 2 were regarded as adaptation nights. Days 3 to 6 (4 days) were regarded as experimental nights. As the experimental condition, cedrol was volatilized for 4 hours starting from 2 hours before lights were turned off. No odor was given during the placebo condition. Each condition was performed for 2 consecutive days, in reverse order. Sleep time increased and sleep latency shortened in the presence of cedrol compared to those of sleep with placebo (p<0.05). Furthermore, sleep efficiency slightly increased in the presence of cedrol (p<0.10). Cedrol inhibited the excitement of the sympathetic nervous system and made the parasympathetic nervous system dominant, which may have made it easy to fall asleep.
The purpose of this study was to implement a home-based exercise program for post-discharge stroke survivors and to estimate a change of functional fitness status and health-related QoL (quality of life) by the exercise program. The subjects were nine survivors with mild and moderate hemiparesis. All subjects had to meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) first stroke resulting in hemiplegia, (2) at least 6 months post-stroke, (3) able to walk independently, and (4) free from grave aphasia, apraxia, a gnosia, or disequilibrium. The subjects were provided the exercise videotape that they can perform at home and encouraged to train at least 4 days a week for 25 weeks. The exercise program in the videotape includes: (1) warm-up for 6 minutes, (2) strength training for 9 minutes, (3) balance training for 9 minutes, and (4) cool-down for 6 minutes consisting of muscular relaxation and stretching exercise. Outcome measures were 12 functional fitness test items. Significant improvements (P<0.05) in the treatment period were found for 4 fitness test items, as hand-grip strength, knee extension strength, tandem balance, and timed up and go. Moreover, we found significant differences in the results of physical functioning, role-physical, and vitality on Short-Form 36-Item in the treatment period. These results suggest that post-discharge stroke survivors may attain marked improvements in functional fitness status in response to implementation of a home-based exercise program. This study provides a basis for further intervention.
Fireman's turnouts are highly heat-resistant clothes of closed type because the turnouts should be resistant to heat and flame. It has been demonstrated by our experiments that wearing of such closed type clothes causes excessive heat stress to firemen. A questionnaire was conducted on firemen in order to get information how they feel when they wear turnouts on the actual fire spot. Further, through a hearing survey, we grasped the actual conditions of wearing and investigated issues to be improved. At the same time, a scenario of model fire was prepared according to a practice of fire fighting by firemen. Using this scenario, labor load of firemen with their turnouts during a fire fighting activity was analyzed to seize conditions of the heat stress when they fight with a fire. Results thus obtained are as in the following. 1. Results of the questionnaire showed that it takes about one hour to extinguish a fire after firemen are called out in the case of a fire of general wooden houses (level of partiial destruction or a small fire). 2. The fire stress is settled on the basis of personal responsibility of each fireman. Somefireman breaks down his health condition due to the heat stress even after a fire fighting activity for one hour or so. 3. It is necessary to take measures for heat stress in summer time at a temperature over 30C. This fact corresponds to results of the questionnaire.
This study investigated a method of clarifying the effects of sound elements in music on blood pressure. As experimental sound conditions, two paired sets were made; one pair was composed music R and fluctuating noise corresponding to music R, the other pair was composed music S and fluctuating noise corresponding to music S. Subjects were exposed to each of the sounds for 130 sec at the most comfortable intensity level for each sound as adjusted by the individual subject. The blood pressure was measured continuously by Finapres. Elevation of the blood pressure while listening to music R was more dominant than that on exposure to fluctuating noise. That was, the effects of timbre and melody were manifested. On the contrary, the changes in blood pressure on listening to music S showed results similar to those on exposure to fluctuating noise, indicating that sound intensity, tempo, and rhythm were the main source of the effect. This study presented the new method for clarifying the physiological effects by the sound elements.
Effects of pressure applied by clothing onto the skin were studied with regard to salivary secretion, digestive time of saliva and amounts of amylase. Differences in pressured areas and regions of the skin were examined in fifteen young female adults subjects. The results showed that 1) the resting salivary secretion was significantly suppressed when the pressure was applied by long-type-girdle (LONG), 2) the digestive time of saliva was significantly prolonged by LONG, 3) decreased amounts of amylase by LONG were significantly increased upon its removal, 4) pressure to the larger areas, especially to the femur and haunches regions induces the largest changes in salivary secretion and digestive time of saliva.