The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular responses during isotonic concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) knee extension exercise in older adults. Peak torque for CON knee extension was determined in healthy older females (n=8). Subjects then performed isotonic CON and ECC knee extension exercise at 50% and 70% of CON peak torque. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured continuously, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and rate-pressure product (RPP) were calculated. CON exercise elicited greater changes in systolic blood pressure(SBP),diastolic blood pressure(DBP),MAP and RPP than ECC exercise at 50% of CON peak torque (p<0.05). CON exercise elicited greater changes in SBP,DBP and MAP than ECC exercise at 70% of CON peak torque (p<0.05). Isotonic CON knee extension exercise elicited significantly greater increases in cardiovascular stress than ECC exercise at both 50% and 70% of CON peak torque. This result is relevant to resistance exercise in older people.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between physical fitness, life style, and health-status using cross sectional data in adolescent male students. A total of 581 males aged 15 to 20 years were selected as subjects for this study. The physique tests (6 items) and new physical fitness tests developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Science, and Technology of Japan (9 items) were used. To assess life style and health-status, a questionnaire consisting of 75 items was constructed. Principal component analysis was applied to the partial correlation matrix, neglecting the age-effect, consisting of 9 physical fitness variables. Cramer's association coefficient and theory of quantification I were used to examine the relationship between life style, health-status and physical fitness. Cramer's association coefficients were significant for 12 variables of exercise habit, 8 variables of meal habit, 2 variables of other life style, and 4 variables of health-status. The multiple correlation coefficient between physical fitness, life style, and health-status was moderate (0.500, p < 0.01). Partial correlation coefficients were high for variables of present exercise-frequency, exercise-frequency and picky eating during junior high school days, and television-reception hour. Exercise frequency of more than three or four days a week, taking meals, and television-reception hour might be related to the maintaining or increasing the physical fitness level in adolescent male students.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the difference in skin color between 50 Japanese women and 50 Korean women aged in their twenties. We measured the color of bare skin and foundation-applied skin by the Munsell System. Moreover we checked their preference for skin color with "skin color sample board" . The results were analyzed by using a three-factor (nationality, site, make-up) analysis of variance (3-way ANOVA). The results of this study are as follows. l)There was a significant difference between the Japanese and Korean women. The Japanese women had more reddish and brighter skin color than the Korean women. Moreover, the Japanese women showed a low Munsell value. 2) There were no differences in make-up tendencies to between the Japanese and Korean women. Both the Japanese and Korean women had yellowish make-up on their bare skin. In particular, they had darker make-up on their sides of their cheeks. It is a common method of make-up of Japanese and Korean women in their 20's.
The experiments were examined to clarify the effects of pure tone on human autonomic nervous system and subjective impression on pleasantness. The activities of sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system were estimated using the low-frequency component (LF) and the high-frequency component (HF) in the power spectrum of heart rate variability, respectively, in addition to heart rate (HR). As a result, 80 phon tones are evaluated to be significantly more unpleasant than 60 phon tones in all frequency conditions (125 Hz, 500Hz, 1 kHz and 8 kHz). On the other hand, there are no statistically significant differences between both loudness levels in any autonomic indices. With regard to the effect of frequency, HR is significantly lower in the presentation of 8 kHz tone than 125 Hz tone. Furthermore, HF is higher in the presentation of 8 kHz tone than 125 Hz tone. However, there is no statistically significant difference between them. At the same time, 8 kHz tone is evaluated to be slightly more unpleasant than 125 Hz tone at each loudness level. These results suggest that parasympathetic nervous system activate against the activity of sympathetic nervous system induced by high frequency stimuli evaluated to be unpleasant.
To investigate the splitting of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) peak during exercise, a time-resolved ^31phosphbrus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (^31P-MRS) technique was used. Eight long-distance runners performed knee flexion exercise in the prone position inside a 2.1-T magnet, with the surface coil for ^31P-MRS being placed on the biceps femoris muscle. After a 4-min warm-up without loading, the exercise intensity was increase to 60% max. ^31P-MRS data were collected at 12 scans per spectrum every 5 seconds. During warming-up exercise and exercise without warming-up the area of Pi peak increased, creatine phosphate (PCr) decreased, the inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine ratio (Pi/PCr ratio) increased. The Pi/PCr ratio when the Pi splitting was observed during exercise without warm-up was significantly smaller than that during exercise with warm-up. It was implied that Pi splitting is observed when anaerobic glycolysis is activated.
Physiological polymorphism is an important concept of physiological anthropology. Firstly, in the present paper, the terms related to physiological polymorphism are extracted from related dictionaries. We tentatively defined physiological polymorphism as follows: the state in which individuals of the same species of organism exhibit physiological variations. From the viewpoint of population biology, it is thought that the population of humans is an assembly of normal small groups. Additionally, we think that it is important for the traits of a small group to be explained by physiological mechanisms. Furthermore, we described a tentative idea about an approach to the elucidation of physiological polymorphism.