The weight-lifting game by using stone is played in the mountain areas in Switzerland and Spain. Also in Japan, it has been played among the people since the Edo era (1603-1867), and it was called "chikara-ishi". Such chikara-ishi' is now found here and there ats hrines and temples in the northern part of Awaji Isl., in Hyogo Prefecture. Those who did this stone-lifting were the young serf named "otoko-shi". In summer, in the evenings, when their work was over, they gathered in a meeting place or a shrine or the ground of a temple in twos and threes and they competed for strength by lifting or practiced carrying stones. But as the change of social structure brought about a decline in the number of people of the "otoko-shi-class", labor became mechanized and the way of recreation was changed, and stonelifting has ceased to be played and only the reminiscence of the past are shown in monuments.
We examined sonic methods of measuring the cohesiveness of sport groups based on Sociometry in order to clearly understand the cohesiveness of sport groups. 0ur subjects were 280 in number from 20 sport groups of colleges and highschools. We applied the sociometric test in order to know the interpersonal combination of the members by means of the index of the tendency toward reciprocation of choice, to find who the stars are by means of index of choice status, and to estimate thc number of the sub-groups and their cleavage by means of the index of sub-group cleavage. We then divided the acquired index value three grades, and theoretically moulded ten model structure patterns by grouping three index values taken from each grade, and examined thc ten patterns in comparison with the sociogram of the actual sport group. The following conclusions are resulted from our examination. 1. It is a proper method of measuring the cohesiveness to theoretically produce the sociogram structure pattern though the three indexes. 2. It is important to check which to be the most proper criterion of choice, because cohesiveness changes as the criterion of choice changes. 3. It is possible to measure thc cohesiveness of thc sociometric structure through the personal, the mutual, and the group aspects, by means of the three indexes and sociogram. We cannot measure the cohesiveness without any one of the three aspects and the two means.
The present study was undertaken for the purpose of clarifying the relationship between the skill and the abilities of prediction under the certain conditions of basketball play. The subjects were: 10 junior high school students, 10 senior high school students,10 freshmen. They were all men and the unexperienced in basketball games. The data were analyzed in terms of two measurements ; (1) accuracy and (2) congruency. The results obtained were: Is follows: (Accuracy) (1) By superiority or inferiority in skill, the ability of prediction to the movement of the team at the present time was not significantly differed. (2) In the first future prediction for the future movement of the team, it was found that the unexperienced tended to make individual play. (3) In the second future prediction for the future movement of the team, even subjects with relatively inferior skill showed correct predictions. These finding were not yet identified whether the subjects indicated a position immediately under the gorl or unexpectedly occurred to make correct prediction as a characteristic of the second prediction. (4) The relationship between thrower and receiver for a pass in the basketball among the unexperienced the role perception was not carried out well. (Congruency) (5) In the interpersonal role prediction of the mover, the subjects with relatively superior skill tended to make move of team play, while among the subjects with relatively inferior skill, the tendency of individual play was observed. (6) The interpersonal roll prediction of the thrower was also shown that the subjects with relatively superior skill showed more correct role prediction than those with inferior.
The HST index has widely been used to measure the condition of blood circulation. The relationship between the index and the actual condition of blood circulation, however, was not clearly known. Thus we have reexamined this relationship. We have found that the index is closely related to the low degree of the normal pulse, but not so closely to the fast recovery of pulse after exercise, and that there were several distinct types of pulse-recovering-processes.
(1) The time courses of oxygen intake and heart rate during recovery processes from running of 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500, 3000 and 5000 meters were investigated with three male varsity long distance runners using the Douglas bag method and a heart rate telemeter under actual sport conditions on a track. (2) The highest values of both recovery oxygen intake and heart rate were the obtained during the first 10 sec. period immediately after each running. The former ranged from 3426±293ml/min (after 200m running) to 2496±23 (after 100m), while the latter from 179.0±6.3beats/min (after 5000m) to 169.0±8.8 (after 400m). (3) The decline of the recovery oxygen intake was steeper than that of the recovery heart rate. The recovery oxygen intake after l00m was the steepest of all the distances investigated. No significant differences, however, were found among the time courses of recovery oxygen intake after the running of different distances. No particular relationship between these distances and the time course of recovery heart rate was obtained. (4) The half decay time of recovery oxygen intake ranged from 27 (after 100m running)to 50±1sec (after 400 to 5000m), while that of recovery heart rate from 2 to above 7.5min. (5) The time course of recovery oxygen intake is given by and Y= -a log X + b (0" < X ≦ 40") and Y= -a' log log X + b' (400" < X ≦ 7'30"), where Y is the rate of oxygen intake at time X. (6) From these results the nature of the time course of recovery oxygen intake and heart rate and the adequacy of the method for measuring the maximum oxygen debt on a track were discussed.
1) Twelve healthy students were trained in isometric contractions (67 percent of maximal leg extension strength until exhaustion) once a day for seven weeks, and 18 days after this isometric training period same subjects were trained in isotonic contractions (for a week all subjects used load of 26 kg, and then for three weeks used 32 kg). In the isometric training period leg extension strength was increased 4 percent for a week, but in isotoric training period, it was increased 24 persent for a week. And dynamic endurance was cleary increased too, but effects was found on the ability of vertical jump. 2) Six healthy students participated in a eight-week repeated vertical jump training. The excellent half of all could not be find any effect, but in another lower half some effects were observed. 3) Three adult male subjects were trained in isometric contraction of the elbow flex at the point of degree of 100 until exhaustion. The training task of holding was a resistance of ultra maximal load that will able to raise over head by jumping press, but can't by normal press) for the elbow flexors on l000゜ flexions as long as possible. 0nly once training per 2 weeks, it was clearly affected on these ability, and then holding time was prolonged about 3.8 times (from 2.5 sec, to 9.5 sec) after 11 weeks training.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the relation between the knee extensor power and ball speed (velocity) as an index of kicking abilities in soccer players. Forty six subjects from the university soccer club participated to the experiment. The knee extensor power was measured with a Inertia Ergometer, and the work loads applied in the experiment were two kinds ; heavy load (EQ.M. 355.1kg) and light load (EQ.M. 27.8kg). Ball speed was measured with Speed Meter which was deviced by the authors to make it related to generating capacity. And the kicking style applied in the experiment were instep-kick. It was found that the correlation between the knee extensor power and ball speed was statistically high, and that both power and speed abovementioned increased as the years of experience in soccer increased.
With a hypothesis that vocalization or the vocal exercise can be useful as the physical exercises particularly for the senior citizens, we examined it's effects upon such human functions, especially as gas metabolism, photoelectric plethysmograph lead from forehead, ears and finger, and cardiac functions. Healthy male adults we e employed as the subjects and following five kinds of vocal exercises were given to each subject: Ex.l A Japanese popular song, "SHIAWASE NARA TEO TATAKO-Let's show happiness by clapping cur hands". Ex.2 A Japanese folk song, "KURODABUSHI-Real Samurai of Kuroda". Ex.3 A Japanese lied, "KONO MICHI-This path in memory". Ex.4 A cheer song, "TORITSU DAI (Tokyo metropolitan university) OENKA". Ex.5 A cheering calls, "HURRAY HURRAY TORITSU". The results were as follows ; 1) The average R.M.R. of each exercise; Ex.1 ...... 0.8 Ex.2...... 1.3 Ex.3...... 1.4 Ex.4...... 1.5 Ex.5...... 2.2 2) Ex.2, 4 and 5 showed considarable changes in the wave of plethysmograph during and after the exercise, especially at the finger. The height of wave was decreased during the exercise, and was rapidly increased during resting period. It's effects remained until about 2 to 5 minutes after the exercise. 3) Ex.2, 4 and 5 showed a remarkable decrease of the amplitude of T-wave during the exercises. The amount of change was not always related to the metabolic values such as O_2 consumption and R.M.R. The effects of intended vocal exercises upon the human energy metabolism and the cardiac function were found to be appropriate for the middle-aged persons in order to supplement their inactivity regularly as one of the prescribed physical exercises.