The purpose of the present research was to clarify the difference of memory process between the trained and the untrained subjects by the method of analyzing the electrophysiological changes during the recall of imageries. As the result, following changes were assured. 1) The "alpha-blocking" and electromyographic changes of the limbs were more remarkable in the former, but the changes of eye movements were more remarkable in the latter. 2) The electrophysiological changes during the recall of specific imageries by the trained subjects were as typical as if they were performing the real activities, and the changes coincided well with the introspective reports of the subjects. From above resuls, it was assumed that training effect related to the process that predominant visualizer become non-visualizer who can recall the imagery of motorial and muscular senses, and the difference of electrophysiological changes during the recall of imageries depended upon the degree of differentiation of the memory traces concerning motor and verbal sequences.
It has been well established that the muscular work capacity or muscular endurance may be increased with training (Hedvall, 1915, McGlynn 1968) Maison et al 1941). In the systematic study on muscular endurance, Ikai et al (1965) found that the best training effects could be obtained between the ages of 12 and 15. As to the physiological mechanism to improve muscle work capacity, many authors have paid their attention to the blood flow through active muscles (Hewlett et al 1909, Grant 1938, Barcroft et al 1949, Corcondilas et al 1964, Lundholm et al 1965, Kontos et al 1965, Wahren 1966).In an attempt to determine what factors would be involved in the improvement of muscular endurance, present authors found the peak blood flow after exercise was increased in proportion to the muscular endurance development during training. Vanderhoof et al (1961) have demonstrated that the blood flow debt was decreased markedly associated with endurance improvement, suggesting the increase in blood flow during exercise. In the study of postexercise hyperemia in trained and untrained subjects, Elsner and Carlson (1962) found that the athletes and nonetheless had greater blood flow in the muscle during exercise than the untrained nonetheless. Rohter, Rochelle and Hyman (1963)) made an investigation on exercise blood flow of the swimmers during training and detraining periods and have found a significant increase in blood flow during training period. It was supposed from these studies that the increase of blood supply to the muscle was a major factor for endurance development. Individual differences in the increase in blood supply through systematic training would indicate the trainability of muscular endurance. Although the changes of blood flow during training have been studied by several authors, training effect on blood flow for endurance in relation to age and sex has not been studied. This study had been conducted to contribute to further analysis of muscular endurance training with respect to blood flow in males and females of different ages.
The present study is primarily concerned with the maximum work capacity, in particular with aerobic work capacity. As known under the term maximum oxygen intake, the maximum aerobic work capacity determines capacity of respiro-circulatory adjustment resulting in the maximum delivery of oxygen to the active tissue. In order to evaluate such an aerobic work capacity, two major methods are generally employed: one is the measurement of maximum oxygen intake under the maximal load, and the other is the amount of work possible under a given submaximal load, e.g. PWC_<170> test. Since the former requires an exhaustive work, it may not be applicable to such handicapped people as patients and aged persons. With the aim to avoid this disadvantage, the submaximal work test like PWC_<170> has been developed, being based upon such a hypothesis that increase in heart rate would be linearly related to increase in work intensities. However, its linearity does not always give full satisfaction. Thus, each has its advantage and disadvantage. But it can be said that the maximal load provides more consistent and direct measurement relayed to the maximal work capacity.
For better understanding of the human movement it should be needed to know the physiological and mechanical characteristics of muscle itself. On the mechanical properties of the muscle, Hill (1922) first initiated a concept of "viscosity". This concept was derived from his experiment on human arm muscle by using an "inertia wheel", in which he observed a linear relationship between the mechanical work done and the time consumed in the arm movement. Fenn and Marsh (1935) found the relation between force and velocity being non-linear. In 1938, from an extensive thermal measurement on the frog muscle, Hill derived an simple hyperbolic equation relating to force exerted and velocity developed:(P+a) V= b(P_0- P) where P is force, V is velocity of shortening, P_0 is the isometric tension, and both a, b are constants. He suggested that the constants should be similarly determined by either the mechanical or the thermal measurement. But his further study (1964) showed that the constants derived from thermal measurbment could not be the same as that determined mechanically, although the tendency should be the same. Dern et al (1947) first tried to test Hill's equati6n on the human muscle by applying inertia as the load. However, their experimental result involved some cases underrepresented by Hill's equation. By using the weight, Wilkie (1950) found that Hill's characteristic equation was well applicable to the human muscle, and proposed a simple but nice model of muscle. Ralston (1949) also confirmed its applicability on the patients having cineplastic muscle tunels. Our previous study (1966) was primarily concerned with the mechanical power developed against the load provided by an inertia wheel. The present study was designed to examine the relation between force, velocity and mechanical power of the muscle by using the elbow flexors of adult males and females Experimental procedure was basically the same as a part of Wilkie's experiment (1950). Hill's characteristic equation was intended to apply to the data collected.
1. Review of the Evaluation Methods of Nutrition Status. In Japan, the annual physical examination is required for boys and girls in all school levels in April. The evaluation of nutrition status of the individual is the one of the items required in the physical examination. The criterion follows; the nutrition status is examined with the items of skin colour, skinfold fat, degree of development of muscles and bones, and its purpose is to screen out those whose nutrition status are no good, and who must be taken care for from a nutritive point of view. However, this criterion is very uncertain to apply to the actual diagnosis, because it is often subject to the physician's own judgment. Pirquet classified the physical components of body into four elements; blood (sanguis),fat (crassitudo), water (turgar), and muscle (muscularis), and proposed to synthesize the investigations on these four elements to evaluate the nutrition status of the individuals. Martin attempted to evaluate it with the costal appearance. His method is based on the fact that the skinfold fat and muscled of chest are so developed as when the nutrition status is good, the costal bones are not so clearly appeared on the chest. The method of skin colour is to evaluate the nutrition status with the blood colour that can be seen through the skin. Dr.Konishi stated that the blood colour in the mucous membrane of lips highly correlates with the density of hemoglobin in blood. That is, anemia relates with the lack of iron, protein and vitamine B complex, and kertosis pilaris suggests the lack of vitamine A. The skinfold fat thickness has been also utilized for this purpose. The physical symptoms caused by the lack of nutrition are also important items for evaluation of nutritional status.