"Chikaramochi", which means a kind of weight-lifting by using a stone, is the game which had been played from the Edo period till the Taisho. In many yards of shrines and public halls in the Himeji district, we can find what we call "Chikara-ishi", stones which were used for the game "Chikaramochi". Those stones weigh from about 160 to 280kg. We can realize from the writings on the surfaces of those stones that the game "Chikara-mochi" was played by sailors, stevedores and fishermen as well as farmers. When those stones, which stirred the blood of youth about one hundred years ago, are now getting out of our mind, we must take a proper measure for preserving them as a cultural property of sports.
In this paper, the author tried to investigate development of children's responses to rhythm by taking "synchronization" as a clue. The subjects used ranged from two years old to six. They required to respond to nine kinds of rhythmic patterns by handedness. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. When children are about three years old, they reach a stage where they can respond to simple rhythmic pattern, and show elementary synchronization with rhythm. It is interpreted that rhythm for children change its function from as an energizer to organizer. 2. With increasing ages, infants become respond to rhythmic patterns more quickly and skilIfully. At about six years old children can respond to almost all patterns. 3. As wrong responses, following four types were found. (a) "Grouping" is correct, but responses do not match for the sound of stimuli.(b) [figure] is mistaken with "〓". (c) [figure] is mistaken with [figure], or [figure].(d) Random responses. 4. The patterns including pauses can not be easily synchronized. This is true throughout all the ages. But once whole pattern is grasped, wrong responses appear seldom. 5. The responses correctly responded to the accent of stimuli development gradually in three, four, and five years old, and suddenly in six.
Five times of Kakari-Geiko practice (shadow practice) of Kendo were conducted for 30 seconds on 4 subjects. The rest between each practice was taken for 130 seconds on 2 subjects and for 100 seconds on the other 2 subjects. The heart rate and the oxygen intake were measured for 4 subjects throughout each series of practice. The maximum heart rate and maximum oxygen intake were measured by the Treadmill running for these 4 subjects. The relations between these maximum values and results measured during Kakari-Geiko were examined. The results were as follows; 1) The maximum value of the heart rate increased up to approximately 185 in Kendo practice. This value was the same as the maximum heart rate observed in a treadmill test. The heart rate at rest was recovered to 150-160. 2) The oxygen intake was nearly 2 liters in the practice. This value was 58.6-69.1 per cent of the maximum oxygen intake for each subject. 3) The oxygen debt was nearly 70-75 per cent of the oxygen intake. This showed that the Kendo practice of this kind might include a high percentage of anaerobic metabolism.
Standard values of pulmonary ventilatory capacity were measured for boys and girls between 12 and 19 yeas of age by means of the Vitalor, which is useful for determining Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV_<1.0>) and Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate (MEFR). Results obtained are as follows: 1) FVCs of the boys were greater than those of the girls. FVCs of the boys showed an abrupt increase between the ages of 12 and 14, but the increase rate was diminished after the age of 14. Meanwhile, FVCs of the girls also showed a tendency of increase between 12 and 15, but the increase rate for the girls was lower than that for the boys, and no increase was recognized for the girls older than 15. 2) FEV_<1.0> show the same tendency as FVC. However, diminution was recognized for the girls of 19 when compared with the girls of 15. 3) The same tendency was observed on MEFR, but MEFR of the girls showed decrease in earlier age than that of the boys.
Recently, the giant on the horizontal bar is placed as a fundamental and important exercise. In this paper, the analysis of the giant swing (forward) was made by the motion and the electromyographic studies. To analyze the loci of the shoulder joint, the center of the gravity, the hip joint and the ankle joint, and the angle changes of the shoulder and the hip joint, the pictures of the 16mm film were used. Detailed observation of the movement was carried out from the view point of the functional mechanisms of the muscles of the shoulder girdle, the upper and the lower extremities. The electromyographic recordings were made with a 13-channel electroencephalograph (Sanei Instrument Co., Ltd.) using surface electrodes, 10mm in diameter. A motion picture and an electromyogram were taken simultaneously. The subjects were six gymnasts who were active participants in apparatus gymnastic for 4-10 years, including third place winner (horizontal bar) in Mexico Olympics (E. Kenmotsu). To get the kinetic energy for performing one circle, it was needed to stretch the radius of rotation when rotating downward and to shorten when rotating upward. When the body was rotated downward, two subjects performed with shortened posture (namely, the trunk was pulled upward) at the shoulder joint, three subjects moved from stretched posture (the trunk was pulled downward) to shortened posture, only the Olympic gymnast maintained stretched posture at the shoulder joint. On the latter half of the downward rotation, four subjects performed with the extended hip posture. But two did not perform with such a posture. From the above, it might be considered that when the body was rotated downward the stretched posture at the shoulder joint and the straight posture at the hip joint were advantageous for stretching the radius of rotation. When the body was rotated upward, the radii of rotation of the five subjects were shortened by the shoulder extension and the hip flexion. But in the case of the Olympic gymnast flexion at the hip joint could hardly be seen. So the Olympic gymnast shortened the radius of rotation mainly by the shoulcler extension. From this, it might be considered that, even if the hip joint was not so much flexed, circling was made possible and the motive power of the giant swing (forward) was due to the shoulder extension.
Ball sizes and weights used in a variety of sports and patterns of throwing vary according to the purposes of the given sports. In this study we intended to analyze the mechanics of throwing when the subject threw a ball horizontally at maximum speed. Procedure: EMG of the upper arm muscles such as extensor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, biceps brachii triceps brachii, deltoideus, trapezius, teres major and pectoralis major, was recorded by the standard surface electrodes. Angular movements of the wrist and the elbow joints recorded by an electrogolliometer. The moment of release of the ball was determined with the electric switch. The subject was a healthy trained man (31 years of age). The balls used in this study well shown in Tab.1. Throwing patterns were three basic ones such as over-hand, side-hand, and under-hand. Results: All recordings of EMG, electrogoniograms and moment of release are shown in Fig.2, 3, and 4. The results obtained are as follows; 1) A form of throwing was generally divided into three phases, those were, back swing, throw and follow through. The time intervals of those three were around 0.2-0.5 sec, 0.3-0.45 sec and 0.2-0.35 sec, respectively (Tab.2). 2) A clear difference was found in EMG recordings between throwing a ball which was small enough to be grasped and throwing the other which is too large. 3) There was a definite difference in EMG recordings between over-hand throw and underhand throw. 4) During the phase of follow-through, action potentials of all muscles involving both extensors and flexors became great. The reason could be found in avoiding jerk of the arm and shoulder. 5) Except under-hand throw, sudden dorsal flexion of wrist was seen immediately after the release of ball. This showed that the subject threw the ball horizontally at maximum speed, and that the flatter the arc in which his hand travels, the greater the possibility of accuracy.
The most clearly defined area in the factor analysis literatures on motor fitness was the area of strength. When the interrelations among tests of strength were factored, three broad factors emerged repeatedly. These factors are Explosive Strength, Dynamic Strength, and Static Strength. These were proved to be independent or only slightly correlated factors by statistical treatments, factor analysis. But it may be questioned if these factors really have no relation when we consider them from the standpoints of physiological and dynamical disciplines. As the results of Component Analysis of six strength tests and height and weight and individual factor scores, it was assumed that the independence was deceptive caused by an artifact, which was different weight they carried on the power tests.
There are two ways for the evaluation of the nutrition status of human organism; subjective and objective. In this study we attempted to establish the standard for evaluating the nutritive condition with Rohrer, Kaup and Kawahata Index and tried to make the study on the relationships between the subjective and objective evaluation. 1) In Kaup, Kawahata Index, as the age grows, the indices are likely to increase, but in Rohrer Index to decrease. 2) In order to make the norm for their evaluation, we considered that the mean should be adopted because the variation of means due to different ages was comparatively smaller than that of mode and median in all indices. 3) The variation of means in each Index gets smaller in such order as Rohrer, Kawahata and Kaup Index. 4) The distribution curve of each Index was symmetric, but of little skewness. But high or low Kurutosis was observed, so the definite tendency might not be concluded. 5) In the multiple correlation between the subjective and objective ways of evaluation the Index which linearly combined with Rohrer, Kaup and Kawahata was the largest. Considering the practicability of evaluation, however, we should adopt Kawahata Index in elementary school, but Rohrer or Kaup in junior high school.
In this study, 'Ishikeri-asobi' (Japanese hopscotch) as one of our traditional plays of children, was taken up. Three different types of groups, which respectively consisted of two children, were formed according to the combining rejection decided after the Sociometric Test. Then the situation of court-making for the play by each of those groups under the same condition and the same instruction was observed and analyzed in order to sec how the group constitution could influence upon the co-operative behavior of each constituent member concerned. As a conclusion of this study, it was clearly observed that there were: (1) mutually independent division of court-making work in the mutually selective group. (2) separate division of work in divided areas in the non-mutually-selective group, and (3) mutually dependent cooperation of the whole work in the group in which one was selective and the other was not selective. This shows that co-operative behavior between the members in the field of physical education is under the influence of group constitution, which exercises some controlling power upon the members through their mutual contacts.