The subject of my essay is an inquiry into what an assignment of physical education is in the present-day society compared to what used to be; that is, I will consider new requirements for the society now as against the old methods and practices observed in the tradition of physical education. First, we must define what is meant by the "present-day society, " and then, consider what really is meant by "personality building," which might seem unnecessary to be discussed here since the idea of "personality building" pertains to physical education whatever. However, I think it important to ask what actually is "personal building" which should satisfy requirements from the "present-day society": -such questions as what sort of ability, what sort of physical strength, and what sort of personality is in demand today. By using the term "the present-day society," I mean the one opposite to "the modern society," a society which comes only after "the modern society" is generalized, successful and comes to its completion. As to the fact about Japan, even the so-called modernization has not yet come to the goal being prevented by many deterrent forces, and so the realization of "the presently society" is, I should say, very behind; it is not an actuality, but a vision to be actualized in the future. This vision is to comply with various social demands, some of which are possible and desirous, some are impossible, some should be made possible. I would like here to allow myself to take the broadest view as possible at a changing world "here" and "now" which is the reality in history, and also like to present, if possible, with new hopes for that sixty in vision, which may be of some use in guiding our steps who are in charge of physical education. What is the vision, then? It is an imagination, or what develops clearly into our imagination while we are intent on thinking a problem when we must make decision about our future. In order to get this imaginative power, we should always be in "posture foreword" and try to live in the present pregnant with future and to act for future to come. Watching a huge vortex of the movement of the current world may lead us into an illusion and an erroneous view of our future. We must not entangle ourselves in strong tides of our time, but we must stop to think, opposing to the outrageous time and tide, of what runs still deep under the waters. It is, to quote T.S. ELIOT, "the still point of the turning world," and makes both the starting point and the termination of my idea of physical education for future, for "in my beginning is my end" and there is "a white light still and moveing."
In 1965 an attitude scale was constructed in England by the author. The scale was administered to about 1,000 British subjects who belonged to 3 generations: school boys and girls, students, and adults. The results were published in 1967 and 1968. In this study 44 opinions and the scale constructed from them were analysed and compared between the Japanese and the British.
There are many interdependent factors which influence the physical performance. Generally, the following factors are considered to be essential: energy output of aerobic and anaerobic processes, neuromuscular function including strength and technique and psychologi-cal factors as suggested by Saltin and Åbtrand (1967). Ikai (1970) presented the following formula showing the relation between physical performance and physical resources: Physical performance = Skill f (physical resources). The similar relation can be approached from the mechanical point of view. Fenn (1930)has found a high value of mechanical eftibiency of about 23% in runners performing at top speed. Efficiency is a ratio of the work done to the amount of energy used. This efficiency is modified by skill based on the neuromuscular function. The present study was intended to examine experimentally the relation between physical performance and physical resources in 5000m running. The mean speed is one of the best indices of the physical performance in endurance events. As the total energy for 5000m running depends by almost 80% upon the oxygen uptake during running, the maximal oxygen uptake is a direct index of three physical resources. Therefore, the maximal oxygen uptake of the runners was studied in relation to the mean speed of 5000m running.
In the previous reports from our laboratory, we recognized that the oxygen consumption per unit of body surface area was generally higher in the athlete in contrast with the normal subject (nonathlete) even in the basal and resting conditiolls, and the metabolic rate in those conditions of both athlete and nonathlete exhibited a significant seasonal change characterized by higher level in winter and lower in summer. It is wellknown that many external stress-stimuli (such as heavy muscular exercise, cold and hot environment, etc.) produces a number of metabolic alterations, associated with adaptive changes of various internal organs including endocrine glands, especially adrenal cortex, thyroid gland and pineal gland. Further, since the muscular training causes a relative or absolute increase of metabolically active mass, or lean body mass, it may give rise to an elevation of total energy metabolism in the basal or resting condition for their ma intolerance, Unlike the seasonal change, the circadian rhythm is more intrinsic nature, coupled with the day-night cycles and reinforced by lesser factors such as temperature change. This rhythm, however, can be modified by some internal conditions such as diseases and drug administrations. Thus, it is of special interest to examine the effect of heavy exercise training on the circadian rhythm of energy metabolism in association with the rhythm of several other parameters.
The Research Section of philosophy of Physical Education is mainly engaged in following works: (1) Symposiums in the Annual Convention of J.S.P.E. (2) Presentation of individual papers in the Annual Convention of J.S.P.E.(3) Publication (4) Other research activities. Followings are recent trends of works in this Section especially in 1968-1969.
As Kato (1962) already reported, the studies in kinesiology were started after World War II in Japan. As is often the cases with the beginning of a new study, the first decade from 1950 to 1959 was mostly devoted to the accumulation of research results in other countries. Since 1960, however, original studies in kinesiology have been undertaken by many researchers in Japan. EMG is unique in revealing what a muscle actually does at any moment during various movements and postures (Basmajian, 1967). It can be, therefore, said that EMG study is indispensable for kinesiology. In the present paper, the authors intended to introduce the development of electromyographic studies in the field of physical education in Japan.