1. This paper deals with the possibility of establishment of pedagogics of physical education as one area of science which is termed physical education. 2. The contents of this type of study have been the one of required subjects for those who intend to become the physical education teachers, so they have been understood and taught to the students as the subject of such type as an introduction to the teaching method. But they have not been studied and developed by the so-called true specialists of pedagogics of physical education. Therefore this has not been any area of truely scientific characteristics as well as of truely practical but of empirical. 3. This paper was described with such intention as developing the physical education practices scientific in a true sense, based upon the results produced in the sciences of physical education. In spite of that the sciences of physical education are advancing, such sciences will not be put to good use if the instruction and/or teaching method in physical education will not be improved at all. The sciences of physical education can not always be applied directly to the actual practices of physical education, but, in the most of cases, they must be reinterpreted in the light of actual situation. The Pedagogics of physical education will be able to give the foundation for the reinterpretation of this type and application. 4. When the studies of this type are cultivated well and systematized, the results produced in the sciences of physical education will be able to be more useful and fruitful. Then, who will do this and how this will be done are the problems that must be attacked after now.
Alteration of the maximal mechanical power and the maximal isometric strength on human leg extensor muscles were followed up for ten months on 28 students who belonged to a bicycle racer school. Subjects were divided into high (N=15) and low (N =13) groups by the respective maximal speed on fixed (stational) bicycle ergometer. The load for leg power was provided by the weight as shown in the previous report by the same author. The maximal isometric tension was determined at the right angle of the knee joint. The maximal power and force and velocity at the peak of power were calculated from Hill's characteristic equation derived at every subjects. Little increase was found in the maximal strength after the continuous physical training by the bicycle. The strength of high group, in, general, was found to be higher than that of low group. The maximal power, however, presented a marked increment, upon prescribed exercise. The difference of values between high and low group was typical. The force exerted at the peak of power apparently increased, but the velocity of the knee extension hardly increased by the training. As the consequence of physical training, the maximal leg strength increased little while the maximal mechanical power increased. The increase was largely due to the increment of force exerted at its peak.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes in the physical recreation activities during the recent six year span and its problems in a near urban rural communities. We investigated the physical activities in Maebaru-machi in Fukuoka. The field works were carried out both in 1965 and 1971. The main procedures of the survey were the interviewing and the questioning. 1) The physical activities in this town did not appreciably progress in these six years. We thought the causes as follows. 2) The shortage of free time and the uncomfortable living conditions. 3) The diveraification of life systems and the decrease in young population. 4) The increasing ill feeling against the administration which regards the physical activities as mere ceremonies. 5) Thb shortage of facilities and the financial support. 6) The alienation of people who are accustomed to new living styles from the old organizations in sports. 7) The indifference of people towards the improvement in the physical recreation.
Longitudinal growth analysis at post-adolescent period in Japanese seems to be rare. Therefore, in this study 119 male and 58 female students 18 to 21 years old were repeatedly measured. The individual patterns in growth of stature, body weight, sitting height and chest girth were classified into 4 types (consistent, promote, demote and irregular types) according to the "standard-channel-method". The mean values for stature and sitting height did not show an increasing tendency after 18 years of age. In these items, most students indicated the consistent type. The chest girth became larger obviously up to 20 years old in males, but in females, apparent growth continued up to 19 years old. In chest girth, about half of the subjects in both sexes were found as consistent type and the rest dispersed throughout three other types with similar rates. The mean body weight in female increased to 19 years old, but it increased slightly until 21 years old in male. The individual growth pattern of body weight indicated the consistent type in most students (male, 90.8% ; female, 84.2%).
Electromyograms were recorded with cords from 9 muscles of upper extremity and shoulder girdle, the serratus anteriors of both side and the tensor fasciae latae, during paddling the kayak chained in the paddling tank. Paddling form was filmed with 16mm or 8mm movie camera in 32 frames a second, and pulling strength developed on tne paddle was recorded with strain gauge attached at the central part of the shaft. These were simultaneously recorded with the electromyograms. Subjects employed in the experiments were 4 candidates for the Canoe Regatta of Mexico Olympics for the skilled subject, 5 unskilled college boys of 3 months experienced in paddling kayak, and 2 beginners of male adults. The loci of the center of blade and the grip point plotted from the movie pictures indicated that the skilled subjects performed more effective catch and paddling even in the latter half stage between middle and finish with more elected paddle than the unskilled subjects and the beginners. The marked discharges of the deltoid posterior portion, the latissimus dorsi, the teres major, and the triceps brachii long head were observed during pulling motion, and the deltoid anterior portion and the pectolaris major clavicular portion, during pushing motion, in the skilled subjects and even in the unskilled subjects. No discharge of the pectolaris major abdominal portion in the skilled subjects and few in the unskilled subjects were observed during pulling motion. This indicates that the direction of pull of the paddle is somewhat outward from the sagittal plane. The marked discharges of the serratus anteriors of both side in the skilled and unskilled subjects showed that the subjects twisted their trunks fully. But the discharge of the serratus anterior appeared far in advance of the one of the posterior deltoid in the skilled subjects. This means that the subjects performed trunk twist far in advance of pulling motion. The discharges of the muscles appeared at about the same time in the most cases of the unskilled subjects. However, after one month training, the discharge of the serratus anterior tended to appear earlier than the posterior deltoid. No discharge of the biceps brachii long head and the triceps brachii lateral head during pulling motion was observed in the skilled subjects, however, fairly large discharges of the muscles, in the unskilled subjects. This indicated that the unskilled subjects uselessly fixed their elbow joints in contrast with the skilled subjects. Only a few discharge of the tensor fasciae latae in the skilled subjects and fairly large discharge in the unskilled subjects, suggested that there was more useless muscle contraction in the lower extremity of the unskilled subjects than the skilled subjects. In the beginners, one of them could not make all of the upper arm extensors participate in pulling motion, and the another, even though he could make them participate in the motion, developed only far small pulling strength on the paddle as compared even with the unskilled subjects.
Examined the relationships between the physique of the participants and their achievement in the XIth Winter Olympic Games, Sapporo, the results were found to be as follows. 1) The computed correlation coefficients between stature and body weight of the participants were judged to be high or fairly high in each event. 2) The physique of the Japanese athletes was relatively inferior to that of the foreigners in almost all events. 3) The relationships between the results and the physique in eight items out of sixty-four may not be ignored as significant correlation coefficients were obtained at 5〜1% level. 4) Althogh, it cannot generally be said that the physique influences greatly upon the results, the regression coefficients of results to physique were significant in a few items. 5) From the standpoint of the fair evaluation of the results, it would not be ignored that the relationships between the results and physique are high, and the physique influences upon the results in a few items.