Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 19 , Issue 3
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (20K)
  • Masaichi Asakawa
    Type: Article
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 125-132
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, the scientific studies on physical education methods and current status of guidance were considered. Moreover, the motor learning programs and problems of guidance method were presented. Physical education methods are generally interpretted as "a teaching method" or "a guidance method" in a specific sense. In the current status of physical education, however, there is need to include sports club activities, recreational activities, administration of health and physical fitness, sports facilities, guidance of living, and so on in physical education methods, and to organize them synthetically. Therefore, in the present paper, (1) contents and problems of physical activities, (2) organization of units, and (3) motor learning and motor skill as central subjects were discussed. (1) contents and dividend time of motor learning, (2) principles of modern training and improvement of learning guidance, (3) growing habit of physical activities, and (4) analytical research and organization of physical education methods as research subjects were proposed.
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  • Komei Hattori, Fumio Ohtsuki
    Type: Article
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 133-136
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The palmar face of the hand area is considered to be an index of the contact range of the grasp or scoop motion. Since little attention has been paid to this problem, the hand areas of Japanese adults were measured. This study was carried out using 86 males (right handed 56, left handed 30) and 53 females (right handed 38, left handed 15). The contours of the hand, including the fingers, were traced from the palmar side onto transparent paper and the areas measured by the polar planimeter. The mean areas of male and female hands were approximately 140cm^2 and 120cm^2, respectively. It was also revealed in this report that the average male hand was smaller than that of an athlete. In both sexes, the average dominant side surpassed the non-dominant side (as shown in the report on other dimension of the hand). The ratios of the non-dominant hands to the dominant hands were between .97 to .99. In some cases, the non-dominant side area surpassed the dominant side area. Such being 21.4 % of right handed males, 23.3 % of left-handed males, 15.8 % of right hand females and 40.0 % of left handed females.
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  • Akira Nagata
    Type: Article
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 137-145
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pursuit tracking of arm or leg was analyzed in the view point of the motor regulation, applying the auto-control theory. As the first step of this analysis, the integrated motor-control system was made up of a block diagram, in order to provide efficient analysis and was simulated with the technical machine-control system. At the second step, three kinds of load which included active force (constant tension), elasticity resistance (spring), and viscosity resistance (damper) of the internal muscle were generated from the rotative torque of the Servo-Motor externally. These loads were utilized as dynamic disterbances in the pursuit tracking. At the third step, the experimental control and data investigation were carried out by use of a Mini-Computer. The results were as follows : (1). The pursuit tracking was formed as an integrated motor system and was possible to provide materials on the examination of the motor regulation. (2). The feedback function of motor control acted suitably to minimize the effect of these load disturbances in the optimum level of the muscular receptor. For example, external viscosity load was matched fairly to internal muscular resistance and adding viscosity load to arm or leg, tracking performance was elevated in comparision with other loads. (3). The mechanism of motor regulation should have been analyzed for controlled physical elements and factors of the movement system based on the auto-control theory.
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  • Kenji Matsushita, Yukihiro Goto, Tsutomu Okamoto, Akira Tsujino, Minay ...
    Type: Article
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 147-156
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    While many kinesiological and physiological studies on sprint running in field have been made, few of them are based on multichannel electromyographic recordings. In the current experiment electromyograms were recorded mainly from the 13 muscles of the lower limb using surface electrodes,10mm in diameter, with 50m recording wire during 70m sprint running. The subjects used in the experiment were 5 male athletes. The electromyograms recorded were examined in term of functional mechanisms of the muscles. 1) Just after start, in the first and second steps, the recording side leg was grounded at the outer-forward position and extened to the outer-backward direction. The electromyographic discharge patterns in the first and second steps were remarkably different from the ones in the third and further steps. 2) The discharge patters in the third and fourth steps were almost similar to the one during the full speed term. 3) The discharge of the tibialis anterior muscle appeared just at the beginning of the swing phase. It lasted until the end of the swing phase, but at brief period of the mid-swing phase, it was depressed. And it tended to separate into two periods as the running speed increased. The faster pariod of the discharges corresponded with the dorsi flexion of the ankle joint, and the latter, with the inversion of it. The discharge of the gastrocnemius appeared at the mid-swing phase and lasted until the end of the stance phase. It worked in the fixation of the ankle joint with the tibialis anterior in the swing phase and in the plantar flexion in the stance phase. 4) The marked discharges of the vastus medialis and the rectus femoris appeared in the middle of the stance phase in the first and second steps, suggesting the active extension of the knee joint in the phase. However, in the latter half part of the stance phase, so called "kicking phase", the discharges were not observed in the full speed term. 5) The biceps femoris increased in the discharge as the running speed increased. It was also indicated that various muscles participated in the hip extension in the stance phase of the full speed term. 6) The contraction in the latter stage of the swing phase of vastus medialis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus indicated knee and hip extension. The muscles participated in extending the thigh backward and swinging the lower leg forward. 7) The discharges of rectus femoris, gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, sartorius and adductor longus, observed in the early part of the swing phase, indicated the muscles participating in lifting up the thigh. 8) The discharges of the deltoideus pars clavicularis and pars spinata, participating in the arm swing, showed the reciprocal pattern.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 157-159
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 160-
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 161-164
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 165-
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages App3-
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (20K)
  • Type: Cover
    1974 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: October 25, 1974
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (20K)
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