Physical education has long been kept in a suited place within the realm of education at school in Japan, while the science of physical education, or its research aspects have not been regarded as the full-fledged areas in the academic fields among others. Today, however, the positive health of citizens became a common interest and concern of all, other than those of school populations, and a great amount of professional knowledges and methodologies as well, are expected by lay people on the part of our profession. This report was written basing upon author's concept relative to physical education especially for those young and prospective researchers inclusive of the present major students, so that their all academic energies may be collected to be systematically utilized for the accumulation of the knowledges as to the unsolved problems in our field. The author's definition for the field follows : "Physical education is one of the applied areas of the back-ground sciences called, Gymnastics or Physical-Activity Science, an academic hierarchy consisting of the knowledges accumulated with regards to the effects of physical activities upon human body and mind as well." Our field has been placed fortunately in an authentic status at the Science Council of Japan with other academic areas, and this fact will positively contribute for the furtherance of our field in future, and the young students and researchers should not squander their sport experiences at presnt, and rather utilize them academically by making their experiences as the subjects for their theoretical approaches in order to initiate their research works.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the problems concerning how the color condition of a moving visual object and its background will influence the value of the timing error. The results obtaind were as follows: 1) In case that either an object or its background is colored and that the velocity of the object is as slow as 1m/sec, the value of the timing error was small under the condition of the longer wave length and higher chroma. When the velocity of the object was as fast as 7m/sec, the value of the timing error was small under the condition of the high brightness contrast which could be recognized even in comparatively fast speed among the several contrast conditions between the object and its background. 2) In case that the object and its background were in an achromatic condition, that is a moving object was white, while its background was black, gray or white, the timing error increased as the brightness contrast between them became greater, particularly under the condition of the fast velocity of the object. 3) In case that both the visual object and its background were colored with the visual object's velocity of 1m/sec, the small timing error was obtained especially under the condition that the wave length of the visual object was opposite to that of its background, namely, long vs. short or short vs. long. In the case of as fast speed as 7m/sec the small timing error was obtained under the condition of the short wave length of the background regardless of the length of the visual object.
The effects of 5 weeks of physical exercise and/or 10 minutes long electrical stimulation on the intensities of PAS-reaction were studied in various types of muscle fibers. The recordings were made according to the intensity of Sudan black B (SBB) stain, using the anterior tibialis muscles of rats. As for the nonstimulated muscles, an inverse relationship was generally observed between the intensity of SBB-stain and PAS-reaction in both trained and untrained rats. A few strongly-SBB-positive fibers, however, showed also strongly-PAS-positive. The frequency of fibers showing strongly positive reaction in both stainings was slightly higher in the trained rats than in the untrained. After the electrical stimulation was given, the PAS-reaction was observed to decrease in the SBB-negative fibers and to increase in the strongly-SBB-positive fibers. The response of the strongly-SBB-positive fibers to the stimulation, however, was more prominent in the trained than in the untrained. PAS-reaction in the fibers rated as moderate in the SBB-stain slightly decreased after the stimulation in the trained rats, whereas that in the untrained slightly increased.
This is an attempt to articulate the characteristics of the school athletic games in Japan, a kind of school-sponsored athletic activities which has no counterparts in European and American school activities. The tentative conclusions derived from this study are as follows: 1. The athletic games were originated on purpose to supplement and promote the physical education. And this orientation had been maintained rather purely during the first several years. 2. From about 1890, the athletic games had been used for non-educational purposes, because of their own popular mobilizing nature, and were necessitated a transformation of their nature from one of school activities to one of community activities. 3. From 1900, this transformation had been under a growing criticism which aimed at the restoration of original educational orientation of the athletic games. But by that time, they had acquired the attributes which were beyond the framework of education, and therefore, in spite of many educators' efforts, their non-educational perversion continued without substantial changes.
The historical implication of Lucian's (120〜190 A.D.) work, "Anacharsis" was investigated as a physical education thought. Following three points were clarified: 1. Lucian pointed out as the purposes of athletic contests (1) freedom for each individual and for the state in general, (2) wealth, (3) glory, (4) enjoyment of ancestral feast-days, (5) welfare for one's family, and as an ideal figure of contestants, (1) manly perfection, (2) physical-beauty, (3) best physical condition (4) glory, (5) unindomitable spirit and inexpressible ardor for victory, (6) indescribable fight His idea of contests seems to have a moralistic and educational significance. 2. His concept about the guardians of the polis attaches importance to education of the soul and building of the body, and it pointed out the following three items as the guardian's qualities, those are, (1) he has an elastic and harder body, (2) he has a courage, and (3) he is a superior man. This concept of his seems to be similar the Plato's thoughts in his "Republic". 3. He grasped that to visit or to observe a good contest is an important factor of motivation that leads young people to the practice of athletic games. Thus, it is felt that these three points give a new significance to the history of thoughts on physical education, because these findings have not been mentioned before.