The gymnastic equipments are created when man is concerned about the exising things around him and he establishes the particular relationship with them. Therefore, the physical education has to imply how the existing things may mean to oneself. The concerns about thrusting and kicking a ball should be preceded by such a view. Strictly speaking, a ball as a gymnastic equipment has to be set in the physical experiences organized around the self. The actions of the hands and the feet with such operations as holding, seizing, putting-on, hitting, thrusting, poking, knocking, tossing-up, throwing, kicking, and rolling should be assigned in the physical experiences organized around the self of man just like the bodily conversations, which are assigned in the private verbal behaviors as the performers of free movements of man. It is the present author's contention to teach from this view of gymnastic equipment developed so far. In this paper, the present author intended to inquire into the questions about how the living organs like hands, feet, legs, head, shoulders, and breast become the performers of the ball operations. The particular emphasis was put on how man could be a parformer of free movements with a ball. An observation was made on how the skills of the children could be changed qualitatively in accordance with their development.
The purpose of this study was to inquire histologically the effect of sexual hormones on the development of skeletal muscle fibers making a distinction among red muscle fibers, medium muscle fibers and white muscle fibers. The experimental animals, Wistar-strain rats of the same venter, were divided into the following four groups on 21 days after birth: (1) Control group of males (2) Castration group of males (3) Injection group of Ovahormon (Benzoate Suspension 1000 Unit) into the male castration (4) Control group of female. The 0.2 ml of Ovahormon was injected into the third group on every other day. M. tibialis ant. of each group was removed on 70 days after birth and the histological method, using Sudan black B, was adopted in this experiment. The results obtained were as follows: (1) Rate of increasing of rats' body weight in the castration group of males was smaller than that in the control group of males and the tendency of that in the injection group of Ovahormon into the male castration was smallest among the four groups. (2) Rate of increase in muscle weight of rats' lower limbs (M. tibialis ant., M. gastrocnemius, M. soleus, M. plantalis and M. ext. digi. longus) showed the same tendency as that of body weight. (3) The decreasing rate of the entire cross sectional area of M. tibialis ant. in the castration group of male was 5.1% in red muscle fibers, 8.8% in medium muscle fibers and 3.6% in white muscle fibers. In the injection group of Ovahormon into the male castration each respective value of those was 20.3%, 25.8% and 29.0%. (4) The decreasing rate of the average cross sectional area per fiber in the castration group of males and the injection group of Ovahormon into the male castration showed the same tendency as that of the entire cross sectional area in red, medium and white muscle fibers.
The appearance of the last digit of any number, composed of several digits, as a result of a measurement out of large number of samles, is expected to be evenly distributed between figures zero and nine. Variety of measurement results, such as population, reading in thermometer, height, weight and blood pressure, were collected in order to ascertain the hypothesis above by applying x^2-test. This, in turn, would mean an exmination of validity and reliability in administration of data. The hypothesis was proved to be correct in the cases of demographic values. Among the measurement recordings, the last digit appeared more frequently to be figures zero and five, when the value had to be momentarily recorded as the dial indicator was not well fixed, than the cases when it could be fixed. The body weight readings showed this trend most greatly as the age of subjects advanced. The results indicate the unstrict attitude of the tester and the subject towards accurate measurement under certain circumstances.
The purpose of this study was to obtain knowledge and information pertaining to the throwing skills in the pronsion shot, i. e., jumping-and-falling shot, frequently used in (Europian style) handball game. In order to obtain such knowledge and information, valuable for instruction of handball players of various skill levels, cinematographical analysis technique was applied. Twenty-one male and female college handball players performed the respective shooting techique, each of which was taken into 16 mm high speed camera. The findings included that quick and strong jump preceeding to throwing is effective for the skill, that the ball should be moved into the goal area quickly after the jump to avoid the ball steeling, that the backward arm swing should be performed after the body enters into the goal area with the ball trajectory kept in front of the body, and that the body lean to the sideways during the aerial traveling may be effective.
The purpose of this study was to examine experimentally the process in which infants synchronize to rhythmic pattern. The rhythmic pattern was [figure] with the speed of ♪ = 54. The subjects were eighty infants who ranged in age from three to six years. They were divided into four age sub-groups in their respective development. The sub-groups were separated into two groups, group A and group B, in the following way. Group A consisted of the members who synchronized to the rhythmic pattern after having learned to react to the pulses of 〓 and ♪, which are the time elements of this rhythmic pattern. Group B consisted of the members who learned to react to the pulses of 〓 and ♪, after having been synchronized to the rhythmic pattern. The results of the comparative examination for these groups were as follows: To learn the pulse before the infants' reaction to the whole pattern nay serve the synchronization, but it is of no help for grasping the whole pattern. In the case of younger infants, it inhibited the reaction because it attracted the entire attention of the infants. They vaguely grasp the rhythmic pattern as its entirety or with a certain key impression of the rhythmic pattern, and they gradually recognize the rhythmic relation of the whole and the various parts according to the development of their perception. In a word, it can be concluded that the infants do not perceive the rhythmic pattern as the additive process of each facto: they perceive it as a configuration (Gestalt) or a whole through composition of each factor.