Little attention has been paid to systematic study and exploitation of the learning theory in terms of the creation of motor skills, for the teaching-learning theory hitherto has placed great emphasis upon the transmission-function of kinetic culture as its central problem. The motor-construction-learning theory is a newly exploited learning method. This motor-construction-theory has been devised through integrating various theories in the proper fields of physiology, learning psychology and kinesiology. This theory is based upon the supposition that the motor-construction-learning consists of the seven types of perception and recognition in motor skills. These types are (1) segmentation, (2) spatial reversibility, (3) phrase, (4) pattern, (5) combination, (6) structure, and (7) integration. In the present study, an experiment was conducted to demonstrate what practical and adaptable effectiveness it will lead to, provided that this theoretical hypothesis is materialized and used as a teaching learning method. As the result, the motor-construction-learning theory has proved to generally promote motor constructive ability, which in turn suggests not only an innovation of a new viewpoint on kinesiology but also creation of motor skills in learners.
The motion-picture analysis administered to the skilled overhand pitchers has made it clear that in most of the subjects the upper extremity movement stops momentarily during the shift from the backswing to the forward swing, and in some subjects the upper extremity moves almost continuously during the same period. Most of the skilled overhand pitchers belonged to the former 'discontinuous type'; the rest, the latter 'continuous type.' The electromyograms were recorded from the shoulder girdle, the upper extremity, and the trnuk muscles of the skilled overhand pitchers who were requested to perform overhand pitching to the fullest of their ability, and were analyzed in terms of the functional mechanism of the muscles. 1) During the backswing of the upper extremity, the discharge patterns obtained from both of the two types indicated that the upper extremity was abducted slightly backward in the frontal plane, and for the 'continuous type,' the discharge pattern indicated that the upper extremity was abducted slightly forward in the frontal plane. 2) In the first half and in the middle of the forward swing of the upper extremity, both of the two styles showed the discharge patterns indicating that the trunk was rotated, and that in the first half, the upper arm was rotated with the elbow flexed. As for the 'continuous type,' the discharge pattern, in the first half and in the middle of the forward swing, indicated that the upper arm was lifted up, and at the same time horizontally abducted, but for the 'discontinuous type,' such discharge pattern appeared from the middle of the forward swing. 3) In the latter half of the forward swing of the upper extremity, the discharge patterns of both types indicated that the upper arm was depressed with the elbow flexed and with the forearm inwardly rotated. As for the 'discontinuous type,' the discharge pattern indicated that the upper arm was abducted in the frontal plane with force exerted backward, for the 'continuous type,' the discharge pattern indicated that force was exerted somewhat forward. In releasing the ball, the discharge pattern of the 'continuous type,' as in the 'discotinuous type,' indicated that the upper arm was abducted in the frontal plane with force exerted backward.
As one of a series of the studies on the investigation of the mechanism of the timing action to a shuttling visual object, the present study aimed at examining the relationship between the recognition of the moving object and the periodical time perception among adults. The results were as follows: When the cycle of the shuttling visual object was rhythmically recognized, the timing error was smaller in the subjects with high ability than those with low ability of recognition of periodical time. Therefore, there was a higher correlation between the timing error and the recognition ability, while, the less the velocity of the visual object and the longer the periodical time of the movement of the object, the lower the correlation between the timing error and the recognition ability. These results might be possibly due to the difficulty in the recognition of the periodical movement of the object in a rhythmical sense. It might be concluded that the visual perception of the moving object played an important role in the timing action used in the present study.
Whether perceptual motor program could enhance the intellectual development of children or not was examined. In the first experiment, five-year-old children participating in the motor program which involved balancing, co-ordination and locomotion were compared with the control group. The motor program - carried out for 40 min. per a session, 3 sessions per a week, during 4 weeks - had no effect on the post-test scores of intelligence and personality tests. In the second experiment, four-year-old children being taught right-left discrimination through motor activities were compared with the children taught by ordinaly in-door method and with the control group. The motor program-carried out for 40-60min. per a session, 2 sessions per a week, during 3 weeks -improved significantly in the right-left discrimination test as well as the children who took the ordinary in-door program.
A systematic theory of physical education as an academic discipline based on related subject-matters in the humanities, social sciences, and the natural sciences was proposed in a previous study. This work has been extended by an examination and analysis of the process, nature, premises, and delimitations of research activities applicable to the discipline of physical education. It is believed that the following results are theoretically valid: Research activity in the field of physical education should be initiated by observation of physical education (movement) phenomena. This process should be carried out most carefully prior to the establishment of any hypotheses. When a number of such hypotheses are proven after practical application to be workable (valid and reliable), a reasonably well-integrated theoretical system may be constructed. It is on this basis that the presumed truth of the physical education discipline may be subjectively (at least) identified. The theory of physical education developed in this fashion as an academic discipline will be a branch of the body of knowledge about mankind. It should be developed with integrity and with all humanity in mind, and based on the evidence from philosophic analysis, scientific investigation, and practical experience. While the total process mentioned above should be included in what may be identified as "the research activity of physical education," a part of this process or investigation in which a specific approach is employed may be designated as "sub-disciplinary study or investigation of physical education."