The purpose of the present study was to clarify the cardiorespiratory response to exercise, by comparing the boy's hemodynamic responses to the submaximal and maximal exercises with the adults' responses, and to determine the validity of cardiorespiratory tests for boys. Oxygen intake, heart rate, cardiac output (CO_2 rebreathing technique); stroke volume and arteriovenous oxygen difference were determined in 25 boys and 19 adult men (10.2±0.3 and 21.6±1.8 year-old, respectively) at rest and during maximal exercises on a bicycle ergometer. The boys were applied to the step test and 800m run, too. Maximal oxygen intake for boys was 1.328±0.206l/min or 41.83±4.89ml/kg min, and for the adults 2.785±0.414l/min or 43.40±4.70ml/kg min. For the boys the cardiac output during maximal exercise was 10.01±1.33l/min, stroke volume 51.57±8.00ml, heart rate 194.65±9.68beats/min and arteriovenous oxygen difference 13.31±1.65vol%; for the adults, these values were 18.65±2.87l/min, 98.98±15.76ml, 188.32±7.25beats/min and 15.15±1.70vol%, respectively. All values obtained for the boys were significantly different (p < 0.01) from those found in the adults. The correlation between maiximal oxygen intake and hemodynamic responses to the maximal exercise described above was found to be statistically significant. The results in PWC_<170> was significantly correlated to maximal oxygen intake, maximal cardiac output, maximal stroke volume and step test score. The 800m run had the significant correlation only to maximal oxygen intake per kg of the body weight. But the step test score was not significantly correlated to the cardiorespiratory capacities. From the present results above mentioned, it was suggested that the remarkable increase in the adults' maximal oxygen intake from resting oxigen intake would be more dependent on the increase in the heart rate and arteriovenous oxygen difference. The same values of maximal oxygen intake per body weight observed in boys and adults were caused by the same values of maximal stroke volume per body weight in boys and adults and by higher maximal heart rate and smaller maximal arteriovenous oxygen difference in boys. The correlation coefficient between PWC_<170> and maximal oxygen intake per body weight was not significant (r=0.23). The highest valid correlation (r=0.71) was obtained between maximal oxygen intake per body weight and PWC<170> per body weight. The performance of 800m run was correlated to maximal oxygen intake per body weight as r=-0.57. But the step test score did not show valid relationship with cardiovascular functions.
The purpose of this study was to classify the growth pattern and to clarify the variation of the pattern between both sexes by the relative growth in height and weight, upon investigating boys and girls in 1952〜60. The materials used for this study were the longitudinal data of the height and weight from 6 to 14 years old in 61 boys and 78 girls. The method was as follows; nine age points from 6 to 14 years old were plotted for every boy and girl by the longitudinal recordings in the height and weight on the figure, in which the weight was represented on the abscissa and the height on the ordinate in logarithms, respectively. Some proper straight lines of allometry were drawn by passing through more than three age points on the individual figure. The growth patterns were classified based on the number of phase and the relationship between two or three slopes (a). The equation of average allometry for each pattern was computed from the "reduced major axis" on a double logarithmic diagram. The discrimination between "monophasic allometry" and "polyphasic allometry" was based on application of the significance test for the difference of slopes and positions between the reduced major axes of different growth stages. The sexual difference of the equation of average allometry could be well based on the significance test for the difference of slopes, positions and co-ordinates at the critical point of reduced major axes in each pattern. The results obtained were as follows; 1)The relative growth of 58 boys and 67 girls from 6 to 14 years old could be classified into 3 patterns (designated as uniphasic, diphasic and triphasic patterns). 2)The sexual difference of relative growth coefficient was not significant in uniphasic pattern. 3)The Sexual difference of relative growth coefficients at both growth stages were not significant in diphasic pattern <I>, but the change towards the second growth stage occured at a lower stature in girls. Comparison between diphasic pattern <I> in boys and diphasic pattern <II> in girls relates that the relative growth coefficient showed superiority of the girls' <II> to the boys' <I> at the second growth stage. And, a rapid increase of the relative growth coefficient occured at a higher stature in girls' <II>. 4)When the samples were classified into triphasic pattern according to their relative growth in weight / height, it was found that the relative growth coefficient showed 2.458 in boys' triphasic pattern (a_1 > a_2, a_2 < a_3) and 1.919 in girls' triphasic pattern (a_1 < a_2 <a_3) at their first growth stage, but the change towards the second growth stage occured at a same stature. And, it was found that the a-value showed superiority of the girls' (3.987) to the boys' (2.960) at their third growth stage.
This study intended to investigate the growth process in the pre- and post menarche term of Japanese women. Two-hundred and thirty-five college freshman girls who had already experienced their menarche were sampled. The subjects were classified into the following five groups: G0; which had their menarche when 10 years of age, G1; when 11 years old, G2; 12 years old, G3; 13 years old, and G4; 14 years old. The stature and body weight at the time when they had menarche were estimated from the data of stature and body weight measured in April by proportional interpolation. It was found that there were no significant differences in the growth pattern of stature and body weight between G0 and G1. At the age of menarche, the stature had reached to 93% of 18 year's height when it seemed to stop growing, but the body weight was 74% of the 18 year's weight. For stature growth, the significant difference between the two groups seemed to disappear after the age of 14 or 15 years and for the weight growth, it disappeared after the age of 17 to 18 years. It was infered that the peak velocity of stature growth appeared at 2 or 3 years before menarche and that of body weight growth at 0 to 2 years before. Soon after the menarche appeared, the growth velocity decreased considerably and the decreasing gradient was larger in the stature than in the body weight, and so was in early matured groups than in the late matured grbups. The Rohrer index decreased untill 11 years of age, and after this it tended to increase, and at 16 years of age it reached the steady state. In all the groups devided by maturation level, it was found that the changing points of tangent of straight lines fitted to the allometry points did not appear at the time when the peak velocity came, but they appeared after the growth velocity began to decrease.
This study attempts to deal with the following problems: 1. The ideal image of man who can break through the present chaotic world. 2. Value and meaning that physical education can give in building such an ideal image of man. So far the purpose of physical education has been swayed by the demand of times. It has remained one of the sciences of human beings, but it should establish its own existential territory by constantly persuing its essence. That means physical education is that which belongs to the category which surpasses sciences as a whole with each science and education as its moment. 1t should not be a more scientific study of physical exercises, nor building healthy body for the sake of health. Man is more than a conbination of organs. He is a thinking being. By philosophising about what is the true value for him and what is good for life, he can have wisdom of finding his way of living. Thus the purpose of physical education become to foster an active man who has a "practicing principle" of human reason.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental changes in the fundamental motor ability of boys 4 to 8 years of age. The fourteen test items, which were picked out of the areas of physipue, physical function and motor ability, were administered to 259 boys 4 to 8 years of age. Principal factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrix of each age which was calculated with these variables, respectively, and the first principal factors were extracted and investigated. Those factors could be interpreted as a fundamental motor ability factor, because of significant loading with all variables. And the fundamental motor ability factor and the degree of contribution of subsets of variables to its variance were investigated in each ate, respectively. The results were summarized as follows: 1)The degree of the contribution of fundamental motor ability factors to total variance decreased as the age grew. In other words, the individual difference of the fundamental motor ability of boys 4 to 8 years of age decreased as the age grew. 2)The proportion of fundamental motor ability area occupied in motor ability decreased as the age grew, while, the proportion of specific motor ability area increased. 3)From the investigation of the changes in factorial structure of motor ability, it was found that the motor ability of boys 4 to 8 years of age advanced from an undifferentiated state to a differentiated state as the age grew. 4)As for the changes in the degrees of contribution of subsets of variables to the variance of fundamental motor ability factor, the degrees of contribution of physique and age variables decreased as the age grew, while, those of static muscular strength and upper and lower explosive strength variables increased.