Evaluating the effects of kinesthetic guidance in motor lerning, three fundamental factors with 2 values each were investigated, giving a 2×2×2 design with eight independent experimental groups and two control groups. These three factors are whether the performance is voluntary or forced, the spaical regulation is active or passive, and the time of instruction to be given. The subjects used were 5th grade boys equipped with a mirror drawing task by use of a triangle path. Results indicated that: 1)The guidance with active movement, and / or the guidance which needs spatial regulation were more effective when they were given at later stage of learning. 2)On the other hand, when they were given at early stage of learning, effects of guidance faded away soon. 3)In contrast, the guidance with passive movement, and / or the guidance which needs no spatial regulation were effective when they were given at early stage of learning. 4)It is not clear from the results of this experiment whether kinesthetic guidance adds more efficiency than normal practice without guidance. These results were discussed in terms of the role of kinesthetic feedback in motor learning.
This is the second part of a series of study to investigate the psychological and sociological mechanism of sport behavior. The first study was done in 1974 and we used the results of that study as the basis for the questionnaire in this study. The questionnaires were given out to the same subjects reduced in number for the statistical sampling from 4,072 to 3,625. The main purpose of this study was to find out phase of sport behavior using the variables in the hypothetical model, through analysis of the correlation between variables and the relationship of some specific variables using frequency of playing as a common factor. The following results were gathered after the data were collected and analyzed: 1. It was found that all the variables listed in the hypothetical model shows a significant relationship. The relationship, especially between sport activity was unusually high. 2. The relation between subjective and objective conditions to sport activity is different according to sex and frequency of performance of sport activity. When the performance of sport activity is done insufficiently, the relation between objective condition and sex was of the same degree in both females and males. But when the performance of sport activity was done frequently, there was a remarkable difference between sexes. The females indicated a tendency of high relationship to objective conditions while the males showed a tendency of high relationship to subjective conditions. On the basis of these results from the survey, research on this subject in more details in the future is needed.
The training effects of bench press on the arm and shoulder muscles were electromyographically examined. The subjects used in the experiment were six helthy young males and the muscles examined were the lateral and long heads of m. triceps brachii, the sternocostal portion of m. pectoralis major and the anterior portion of m. deltoideus. The EMG recordings were made with a 4 channel electroencephalograph (Nihon-Koden Inst. Co., Ltd.) utilizing surface electrodes, 10 mm in diameter. The training was performed twice a week and continued for six months. During the training period, the electromyographic recordings and the measurements of the extension strength at the elbow joint and the flexion strength at the shoulder joint were taken once a month. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1)All subjects showed no visible changes in the discharge patterns of the lateral head of m. triceps brachii and the sternocostal portion of m. pectralis major throughout the training period. 2)The discharge patterns of the long head of m. triceps brachii and the anterior portion of m. deltoideus varied among the six subjects and were classified into three different types. Type A: The first two subjects showed the co-active discharges in the long head of m. triceps brachii and the anterior portion of m. deltoideus. Type B: In the next subjects, the discharge of the long head of m. triceps brachii appeared at the latter half period of the bench press motion. Type C: The discharge patterns of the last two subjects shifted from type A to type B during the training. When the maximum weight was loaded, however, the subjects in type C showed the similar discharge pattern to that of type A. 3)In type A and type C, the extension strength at the elbow joint, the flexion strengh at the shoulder joint and the maximum weight of the barbell for one-bout lift increased up to 132%-165%, 150%-184% and 147%-173% of the control, respectively. 4)In spite of little or no increase in the extension strength at the elbow joint and only 2 to 16% increase in the flexion strength at the shoulder joint. the subjects in type B showed 33 to 48% increase in the maximum weight of barbell for one-bout lift. 5)The decrease in the electrical discharges of the muscles at the minimum (16kg) and the light (31 or 36kg) loads observed during the training period might be due to the increase in the contractile force of the muscles at the level of individual motor unit.
Glycogen consumption and its restoration were studied histochemically in the tibialis anterior muscle fiber of the rat. After the cessation of 10-min stimulation to the muscular contraction, the animals were sacrified individually at minutes of 0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 of recovery. Both the stimulated muscle and the nonstimulated muscle of opposite tibia were immediately dissected out for preparation of frozen serial Cross-section. Histochemical techniques applied were succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) stain, Sudan black B (SBB) stain for fat, and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain for glycogen. The SDH activity of each fiber was almost parallel to the intensity of SBB stain. The electrical stimulation caused an increase in frequency of incidence of the fibers rated as "PAS-negative" in SDH (-) fibers, while a decrease in the frequency in SDH ⫲ fibers. However, no change was shown in SDH (+) fibers. Subsequently, these differences in the frequency of "PAS-negative" disappeared at 40 and 80 minutes of recovery for SDH (-) and SDH ⫲ fibers, respectively.
In the Physical training, the intensity of the mechanical effect of the mass load upon the body varies depending on the vertical motion and the acceleration of the body. The authors intended in this thesis to analyze, using a cinematogragraphic technique, the following two aspects of the curl movement, one of the typical weight training methods: (1)Measurement of the mechanical effective value which the training load, including the mass of the body segments, shows during the curl movement. (2)Examination of the cycle patterns of the vertical motion, velocity, mechanical energy, power and force. The results of this experiment are listed below. 1: The ratio between the dumbell weight and the mechanical effective value in motion was as follows: the value of this ratio when average in time was five with the dumbell weighing 1.2kg.: three with 3.00kg.; two with 5.00kg, and the maximum value was ten to fifteen with the dumbell weighing 1.20kg.; five with 3.00kg.; three to four with 5.00kg. 2: The curves of selected parameters showed the following patterns. The vertical motion showed a mono-peak wave pattern, while the change in velocity Showed two similar peaks. The pattern of the power and force looked very much alike: a large positive peak followed by a small negative peak, a small positive peak, and finally a large negative peak. 3: There were certain phase differences in the pattern between the velocity and energy, and between the power and force.