The present study was intended to compare cardio-respiratory responses to the maximal exercise on bicycle with those on treadmill. The progressive loading method was adopted for both bicycle exercise and treadmill running (resistance for bicycle and speed for treadmill). The subjects were 28 well-trained middle and long distance male runners. aged 18 to 25 years. Douglas bags and Scholander's apparatus were used to determine the maximal oxygen uptake. The modified Filley's steady state method was adopted for the determination of pulmonary diffusing capacity, and CO_2 rebreathing method was for the determination of cardiac output. The results obtained in this study were summarized as follows; 1)The maximal oxygen uptake (3.93±0.47l/min) obtained by treadmill running was significantly greater than that (3.36±0.50l/min) by bicycle exercise. 2)The larger maximal oxygen uptake by treadmill running was due to the higher pulmonary diffusing capacity, ventilation, heart rate and / or arterial-venous oxygen difference than those by bicycle exercise.
Several studies on classifying the individuals into some categrories have been reported by several researchers, such as Noguchi and Igarashi, Ichimura, Stephenson and Matsuura, but only few studies to classify the teams and / or groups have been reported. In this study, it was attempted to classify the sport in terms of fundamental motor ability of team members. Fundamental motor ability was measured by 29 performance tests sampled from the following motor ability areas: physique, physical function, fundamental motor elements, and fundamental motor skills. Then, from the linear model of motor ability, the fundamental motor ability was estimated by factor score vector of 8 factors in boys, and by one of 9 factors in girls. These factors were extracted from the 29×29 correlation matrix through principal factor analysis and normal varimax rotation technique. The mean vectors were computed in each sport team and the inter-team correlation and similarity coefficients were computed with these mean vectors of fundamental motor ability. Investigating these correlations and similarity coefficients, the team configulaiton diagram was drawn. Then, another factor analysis was applied to the inter-team correlation matrix and the factors explaining the inter-team similarity were extracted and 15 sport teams and one non-athlete group were classified into 12 similarity groups for boys, and 6 sport teams and one non-athlete group into 3 similarity groups for girls in terms of the background factors of inter-team similarity or correlation.
This study deals. with historical investigation on the physical training activities of the youth groups, called "Seinen-Kai" (youth association) or "Seinen-dan" (youth corps), in Hiroshima Prefecture during the Meiji and Taisho periods. Their main features would be summarized as follows; 1. There were no recognizable physical training programs in the activities of the youth associations in the early stages. 2. The youth associations began to adopt physical training programs from about 1905, when the Japanese government turned to encourage organization of youth associations. Their purpose was for amusement, rather than physical training itself. 3. Since 1915 when the government-sponsored youth associations (the so-called "Kansei Seinen-dan") were organized, emphasis on physical education in the Seinen-kai turned to be more agressive, harder training. 4. From about 1920 and on, the physical training of youth corps began to focus on athletic contests. This trend climaxed at the national athletic contest held at the Meiji-Shrine athletic ground, which clearly reflected the nature of physical training in the youth corps. 5. Generally speaking, the physical activities of youth groups tended to focus on big events, rather than on daily training, and their interests were kept concentrated on occasional athletic meetings or conventions.
Fifteen normal healthy adult female college students served as subjects in the experiment designed to find out the accuracy of output control in human movement such as jumping. Four types of jumping, eyes-open and eyes-closed Sargent jump and standing broad jump, were performed by each subject. Subjects were asked to jump five different stages of distance graduated in 20% of their maximum performances relying only upon their own subjective estimation. Every stage consisted of two sets of jumping, one set including two trials, so that ten sets were randomly given for one type of jumping. Results were as follows; In general, all subjects successfully graded their output as distance. Standing broad jump was easier to grade than Sargent jump, and eyes-open was easier than eyes-closed. In the eyes-open broad jump, subjectively controlled performance well agreed with the objective scale, but in other jumps, subjective performances always exceeded the objective norms. Reproduction errors were calculated in various ways. Absolute errors were almost constant through five stages regardless of the distance jumped. Hence the relative errors were greater in the lower stages than in higher stages. In particular, algebraic relative error showed that subjects constantly jumped higher in the second trial of one set than in the first trial in the lower stages and vice versa in higher stages. High correlation coefficients were found between the distance jumped and the change of knee angle from still standing position, and between the distance jumped and the time duration in which the force larger than body weight were acting vertically (kicking time), while maximum force applied during kicking showed few significant correlations to the distance jumped. This fact suggests that the distance jumped is controlled through knee position sense which, influencing the time factor in the 'impulse', determines the distance jumped.
The remarkable records set in track and field events in Japan in recent years have been brought about by the improvement of training methods as well as those of athletic goods and facilities. However, by examining historical development of track and field events in Japan, the author have reached the conclusion that the development is also closely connected with the rules of the events. The followings are the main points: 1)In 1913 (the 2nd year of Tight), the rules of track and field events were put into practice for the first time in Japan. 2)In the Media era (1868-1911), athletes could not make any protest against the decision given by judges. The rules were based on the judges' standpoint. 3)During the Tight era (1912-1925), with a growing interest in the record and with the progress of judging techniques, the rules came to gradually be revised and improved to attach more importance to the athletes' standpoint. 4)The Show era (1926-) is characterized by the revision of rules with the aim of laying greater emphasis on such material aspects as instruments and equipment of the events than on such human aspects as athletes and judges.