Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 22 , Issue 6
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages Cover21-
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages Cover22-
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages App10-
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Masanobu Ito
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 331-342
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to confirm the conscious and the unconscious cognitive expectancy as a mechanism of acquired anxiety which was experimentally manipulated by means of the reaction-time signal (CS)-electric shock (UCS) pairings, and to examine the effect of acquired anxiety on choice reaction time (CRT). Thirty-six highly susceptible subjects (Ss) were selected on the basis of their performance on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. The Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. The experiment was divided into three sessions, pre-test, conditioning, post-test. In each of three sessions, three light stimuli were randomly presented 10 times per stimulus. In the conditioning session, the Ss were given the electric shock after the middle stimulus (CS^+) onset. After the conditioning session, the Ss in all groups were hypnotized and given the following treatment and then awakened. The Ss in Group 1 were given neither special instruction nor suggestion. The Ss in Group 2 were given posthypnotic suggestion for amnesia of the events in the conditioning session and the hypnotic state, but not given the instruction on extinction. The Ss in Group 3 were given the instruction on extinction without the suggestion of posthypnotic amnesia. The Ss in Group 4 were given the instruction on extinction and the suggestion of posthypnotic amnesia. As a result, a significant delay of CRT to CS^+ in the post-test session was found in the groups which were not given any special instruction on extinction, regardless of being aware or unaware of the relationship between CS^+ and UCS. In only the groups given the instruction on extinction, however, it was found that, in the post-test session, the CRT to CS^+ recovered to the same level of the CRT in the pre-test session. These findings appear to provide evidences of the conscious and the unconscious cognitive expectancy as a mechanism of acquired anxiety.
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  • Tetsuo Fukunaga, Masahiro Sugiyama
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 343-349
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to observe the difference of training effect on the absolute muscle strength between static and dynamic strength training. The subjects were 14 adult males of whom 7 were exposed to static training and others to dynamic training. All subjects were trained every day for 12 weeks except Sundays. Training intensity was two-thirds of maximum isometric strength in static training group (S-group) and two-thirds of one repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic training group (D-group). In S-group muscle strength was exerted statically for 1O seconds on the right angle of the elbow joint. In D-group the elbow joint was flexed between 75 and 105 degrees of the angle of elbow joint with the rhythm of one repetition in two seconds using audiovisual metronome, and it was repeated five times in a set. All training exercises for both groups were given three sets in a day. The cross-sectional area of elbow flexor muscle was measured at the extended position of the elbow joint before and after training by means of ultrasonic method, and the absolute muscle strength was calculated. The results were as follows: 1)Maximum isometric strength significantly increased (p < 0.001) by 25.9±4.2% (mean ± standard error) in S-group and 30.7±3.8% in D-group. No significant difference of strength increase was observed between dynamic and static training group. 2)The dynamic strength, measured as 1RM significantly increased (p < 0.001) by 22.7±1.1% in S-group and by 33.1±4.0% in D-group. The increase of 1RM in D-group was significantly higher than that in S-group. 3)1RM was about 70% of isometric maximum strength, which value was not affected by both training programs. 4)Cross-sectional area of muscle increased significantly by 5.4±1.4% (p < 0.01) in S-group and 3.2±1.3% (p < 0.05) in D-group. No significant difference in increase of muscle area was observed between S- and D-group. 5)Absolute muscle strength increased by training up to about 9.7kg/cm^2 (muscle area measured at extended position of elbow joint) in both training groups.
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  • Kazue Sato
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 351-362
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study is to present author's major concept which comprehends the concepts of both physical education and sport based on the philosophical discussion. The sequence of the argument is outlined as follows. 1. In the consideration on each of physical education and sport, the concept or the reality should be clearly distinguished from the idea or the value. 2. To clarify these concepts, materials for the activity should be sharply discriminated from the practice of the activity. Material here means such objects, relative and environmental settings for the performer as names, terms, tools and facilities for the activity, while practice includes concrete movements, performances and outcomes of the activity. 3. There exist a number of misinterpretations on these concepts today indicated here as follows to be clarified: (1)Confusion of concept or cognition of sport with the idea or the appraisal of sport. (2)The fallacy of inducing the cognition from the appraisal. (3)Mixing sport materials with the sport practice. (4)The fallacy of etymological interpretations. (5)Mixing the reality of sport with the motivation for the sport. Reality is shown as a function of sport materials and performers, while motivation means the pursuit of value based on the need for the human life. 4. Basis on the aforementioned examinations, sport activity is defined here as the life phenomena of conscious value pursuit intervened by sport materials. 5. The distinction between physical education and sport should not be made due to the difference of materials, but rather in the difference of the directions of effects upon performers brought about by the activities. Physical education, on one hand, is a monistic, purporting, inwards or centripetal work for the realization of personality creating values, that is, a functional direction into human beings, on the other hand, sport is a pluralistic, functional, outwards or centrifugal work for the realization of life creating values, that is, a functional direction out of human beings. 6. Such exising terms as Korper-kultur or physical culture sumingly put rather too much stress on the physical aspect of the activity. Guested of the terms, physical education and sport, the author proposes a new term, physical human culture as a major and longer concept over physical education and sport. Whatever it may be named, it is conceptualized as the cultural activities which enrich internal humanity and vitality, and improve external mode of personality and life through physical activities. And its idea is the positive value creating performance which one serves human dignity for the development of the health, the peace and the happiness in human life as a part of cultural activities of human world.
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  • Kiyomi Ueya
    Type: Article
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 363-373
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this investigation was to examine force, velocity, and power of rowing motion and to calculate the energy equation applicable to such movement. Higher performance and better technique in rowing may be interpreted in terms of how to generate larger energy and minimize the energy expenditure during the rowing motion. Force, velocity, and power of rowing motion were recorded by the inertia wheel and power meter devised by the present author, as the subject pulled wire connected to an inertia wheel in simulated rowing motion. The equivalent masses of inertia wheel were graded into six load levels varying from 8.0kg to 986.3kg. The rowing motion was filmed by 16mm cine camera and the corresponding measures of force, velocity, and power were synchronized to the film. Experimental subjects were eight members of varsity crew and same number of juniorvarsity crew of Tokyo Institute of Technology and were termed as "Boat Man." In addition, eight trained athletes in track and field and basketball who had no experience in rowing formed a control group and were termed as "Non Boat Man." No appreciable difference was observed between the "Boat Man" and "Non Boat Man" in the measures of their physique and static maximum strength. Following results were obtained: 1. Rowing force and power reached maximum when the arm pull is simultaneously combined with the leg kick and the backward swing of the body. 2. The following equation was proposed to express the rowing motion: 1/2 (M+A) V^2 = Ed where: Ed = total generated energy A = coefficient of expended energy 1/2MV^2 = effective energy trasmitted to the boat 3. From the study of various rowing styles, i. e., using only legs or only arms, it was estimated that the total energy (100%) is contributed 37% by the leg kick, 36% by the backward swing of the body, and 27% by the arm pull. 4. There were remarkable differences between "Boat Man" and "Non boat Man" in their energy equations, although their muscular strength were comparable. These equations were: Varsity crew 1/2 (M+75.74)V^2 = 952.91 Junior Varsity crew 1/2 (M+74.76)V^2 = 879.10 "Non Boat Man" 1/2 (M+51.99)V^2 = 614.51 5. In selection of the crew members and determination of their positions, a consideration of the energy equation, especially of the high level and the balance in ED and A values may be recommendable.
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  • Type: Index
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 375-
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 376-377
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Bibliography
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 378-
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages App11-
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages Cover23-
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (15K)
  • Type: Cover
    1978 Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages Cover24-
    Published: March 25, 1978
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (15K)
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