The Akita-han (the feudal fief of Akita) founded hanko as an institution for educating its clansmen, and it continued to exist until 1872 (the fifth year of Meiji). This paper examines, drawing upon documents, at that time, what kind of place was assigned to martial arts in hanko education. The summary is as follows: 1. The object of founding hanko was nominally to encourage sons of samurai as the ruling class to be well up both in literary and military arts, but its real aim was to train them in administrative and other practical affairs. 2. Although most other hanko in those days provided both literary and martial lessons, only civil affairs only were taught, to the exclusion of military affairs. 3. The hanko was concerned in martial arts in that it had attached bugeisho (Martial Arts Hall) within the precinct of the school. But it seems that bugeisho which was built with the intention of encouraging and training martial arts did not play any significant role 4. In those days such a great variety of martial arts as gunnery, swordsmanship, archery, spearmanship, horsemanship, jujutsu (ancient style of judo), the art of war were practiced in Akita-han. The biggest martially-oriented official event of the Akita-han was the drill by gun guards, which was annually submitted to the inspection of the lord of the clan. Swordsmanship, archery, spearmanship and horsemanship in addition to literature were compulsory to the sons of samurai for being appointed to offices. But horsemanship was assigned only to those who obtained a grant of 70 koku (1 koku corresponds to 180.5 liters) of rice a year. The han appointed the bugei-todori, or the Chief of the Martial Arts, to supervise the martial arts education. He took charge of joran and naiken (official and unofficial inspections by the Lord), the exercises in bugeisho as well as occasional financial aids to masters of martial arts. 5. In 1864 the Akita-han founded the gunnery house (hojutsu-kan), but it served merely as a military organization rather than educational. organization. In the second year of Meiji hanko was reestablished under the name of the Emperor to promote the education of both literary and martial arts further, but the concrete curriculum of military training was not specitically directed.
Performance tests are designed to determine motor ability by measuring the demonstrated performances in various motor tasks. In order to examine the domains of motor ability as determined by performance tests, with special reference to the inter-correlations among such domains and the changes associated with the growth of the subjects, factor analytic technique was applied to the test results of junior highschool girls. The domains of motor ability as measured by each test item were expressed in tree-diagrams. Seventeen factors, which equalled to the number of the test variables included, were extracted to explain 100% of the total variance. Starting from the factors showing the largest eigen value, orthogonal rotation with normal varimax criterion was performed. Adding the factor showing the next largest eigen value, the same procedure was repeated in turn until all seventeen factors were added and rotated. At each rotation, the test items showing high factor loading were identified and the domain to which the factor may be belonged was considered. The tree-diagram showing the domains of motor ability as measured by each test item was constructed. The results indicated that the test items such as stature, weight, back strength and grip strength appeared to measure the ability belongs to common domain, whereas the ability measured by 50m dash, running broad jump, vertical jump, handball throw and so on belongs to another domain. The domain of ability measured by 2000m run seemed to vary from one age to another.
It is a well known fact that physical fitness is influenced by physical activity. The purpose of this study is to find the relationship of physical fitness to organized club training, obesity, leanness and a weekly physical education program. The subjects were women aged 18 and 19 years, and the total number of participants were 1064. The results showed that 49% of the subjects had not been engaged in any training, 25% have had snch experiences of 6 months up to 2 years, 20% of them, 2 up to 5 years and 6% of the total group had 5 years and over of organized club training. This last group was physically fit the most. There were significant differences between the group of 5 years and over of sports training and other three groups. But there was no significant difference in the level of fitness between the group of less than 2 years and group of non-training. The subjects whose Rohrer's indexes were above 160 and below 110 showed inferior in the physical fitness to the normal index group. The subjects had 90 minutes of physical education classes every week and the average heart rate during active 45-minutes among the selected subjects was formed to be 138±15 beats per minute. The classes were thus considered not to be strenuous. Then all the participants were divided into five groups according to their level of physical fitness. All subjects were tested in fitness in April and December. The tests showed there was a significant decline in the physically well conditioned students examined in April, but a significant increase in the physically poorly conditioned students. In conclusion, the average value of physical fitness of the 1064 participants seemed to have been lowered by the non-training group, the obese group, and the lean group. The weekly physical education classes were considered to have provided positive effect in physical fitness among the average and the poorly conditioned students.
The somatological studies on the anterior walls of the trunks have never been attempted in detail. One of the reasons is probably due to the unstability of the shape of the abdominal surface that lacks osseous components. By using moire topography, the anterior wall is easily contoured and the profile of the surface can be depicted from the coordinate points of the contour lines. Though the transitions of the protrudent points of the chest following the respiration were reported by Morita et al. ('73), the curvatures in the thoracic and the abdominal walls are not yet analysed anthropometrically. After a careful observation of the moire patterns of the walls, the five types were identified in male students. Namely, they were 1)sternal, 2)epigastric, 3)umbilical, 4)hipogastric and 5)vertical types, respectively. The epigastric and umbilical types surpassed the others in frequency. Anterior contour length from suprasternale to symphysion was measured and some indices were calculated from the cordinate points of the midsagittal plane of the trunk. From the results, it could be also estimated that the abdominal regions of the male students were rather protrude in spite of their slender physiques. Furthermore, the correlation analyses were undertaken, and the findings suggested that the types of moire pattern highly correlated to the segmental inclinations of the trunk.
Relationships were examined between the following variables: respiratory phase (R.P.) and intrathoracic pressure (I.T.P.); exercise intensity and I.T.P.; and whole body reaction movement and I.T.P., R.P. Intraesophageal balloon method was used to record the changes of I.T.P. The subjects were six young male volunteers. The following observations were made: 1)In accordance with the type of body movement, not only the positive but also the negative pressure changes were observed during dynamic body movements (situps, trunk extension, throwing, jumping and pressing). 2)A positive correlation was found between the exercise intensity and the amplitude of I.T.P. change. 3)Under the condition of unintentional respiration, breathholding after inspiration was the common phase of respiration at the commencement of a dynamic movement. 4)For the condition of waiting for signal, the shorter reaction time and movement time in whole body reaction movement were recorded in inspiratory breathholding state than in expiratory breathholding state. 5)During the whole body reaction movement commenced by the waiting condition of inspiratory breathholding, the changes of I.T.P. showed high amplitude in positive direction. When the signal was waited in expiratory breathholding state, I.T.P. change in negative direction preceded immediately before the pressure Change in positive direction. 6)These results suggested that the sharp positive change in I.T.P. is an essential factor for the commencement of an explosive movement mobilizing the large muscles of the body.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the motivation of parents for sending their children to a rugby school and their perception of the potential effects of a rugby school on their children. For this purpose, questionnaires consisted of seventy-one items regarding motivation and seventy-four concerning potentia1 effects were administered to 1314 parents. Then, the Ward method of cluster analysis was applied to the items of motivation and the direct varimax method factor analysis was applied to the items concerning perception of potential effects. Further, the mean and S.D. of factor scores of each cluster group was calculated to analyze the relation between the parents' motivation and their perception. The results can be summarized as follows. 1)The parents' motivation was not related to their children's age, but showed some common tendencies. Most of the parents didn't expect their children to become rugby players, but rather hoped they would develop sports-men-like traits. 2)Regarding the motivation of the parents, four cluster groups were identified. The first group was made up of the parents' expectation placed upon the future of their children. The second was thought to be the tendency of their children's disliking of sports. The third was the resourcefulness and intimacy of the parents with the rugby school. The fourth was considered to be the fondness of their children for playing rugby. 3)Among the potential effects of a rugby school, the effects of improving children's health and also their ability in adjusting to group life were most frequently perceived by the parents. 4)Generally speaking, the structure of the parents' perception of potential effects can be explained by the following three factors: The first factor can be called anticipation for the positive effects in general; The second can be called anticipation in the improvement of adjustment ability to group situation; The third can be called anticipation for the negative effects in general. 5)As to the relationship between the motivation and perception of potential effects, it was found that the positive effects were perceived predominantly with very little perception of negative effects, especially when the children possessed high athletic ability and / or the parents placed high expectation at the time of the children's first enrollment to the rugby school.
The present study examined the differential effects of immediate and delayed imitation on learning a rythmic task. Male students (n=18), ranged from 18 to 25 years old, were employed as subjects, who were randomly divided into two groups, i. e., Immediate Imitation Group (IIG) and Delayed Imitation Group (DIG). In learning the task, the subjects were required to tap a reaction measuring device with their dominant foot to a series of the tune of preappointed rhythmic stimulus. During the training periods, IIG was required to respond simultaneously to the stimulus, while DIG was required to do after hearing the stimulus. As the result, no significant difference (p <. 05) was detected between the two groups as for the training period and the effect maintenance period. Further analysis manifested that IIG could be divided into two subgroups relating to learning strategy. One is the group which tends to coincide with the hypothesis, and the other is the one where the subjects are assumed to do Symbolization in the sinilar way as delayed imitation even though they are under the condition of IIG.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the torque curves obtained through Cybex Machine while performing isokinetic exercises in knee extension and flexion. Subjects were five male (aged from 18 to 23) and five female (aged from 18 to 19) athletes. Loaded turn speeds of Cybex Machine were set at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25 and 30 r. p. m. Subjects performed exercises sitting upright with arms crossed in front. The results obtained from the exercises were as follows: 1)The peak value of muscule torque at each turn speed tended to decrease with the increase speed in both extension and flexion for both sexes. The value disparity between extension and flexion at the same speed respectively was 1.2〜1.7 : 1. 2)The angle in which the maximum strength was reached at each loaded turn speed was decreased with the increase of turn speed in extension for both sexes. In flexion, however, the angle became greatest at the medium speed. 3)The work calculated from torque curves at each turn speed decreased with the increase of speed in both extension and flexion. 4)The power calculated from torque curves at each loaded turn speed described a parabola, reaching the maximal value at 25 r. p. m. The power value at lower speed did not show any differences both in extension and flexion. But the value of extension was greater than that of flexion at higher speed, and besides, the disparity became greater with the increase of turn speed.