Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 24 , Issue 3
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages App5-
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Fumie Fujisawa
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 163-173
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Dance is the end of dance-education. Dance is a formed art as well as a performed one, whether it be in the professional field or in the educational field. Therefore, analysis of the structure of dance performance provides a good way to gain a better understanding of the composition of dance. In this paper, writer attempts to form an adequate conception of dance performance. How a work of dance is recognized as the dance ? There is no doubt that dance is found as dance and interpreted by persons who compose, perform and appreciate it, and the case of education, by a teacher and pupils who develop dance as an activity. Having an urge to dance, we pick up a work of dance which has been composed by someone and yet requires performers, i. e., dancers. The dancer, if he/she is thought to be apt for this work, becomes the medium through which the work is realized. A dancing body is the same one that the dancer has in everyday life, but during dancing, it acts as a serviceable instrument which the dancer masters. The process, in which the dancer's body turns itself from "everyday" appendage of the self to the proper material for dancing, poses three key questions: "What is the dancer doing ?", "How does it look to those who appreciate dance ?" and "What kind of appearance must it have ?" Taking the case of "The Dawning Sea", Laban's theory of "effort" is applied to this dance work and the full meaning that is expressed by the dance sentences is analyzed. The appreciators have no means of expressing their impressions of dance, because they can neither regard the dance as a movement nor call the movement a dance. If we observe disinterestedly what is presented in dance, we are just capable of grasping a work of dance as an indivisible wholeness in force-time-space. Space, time and force are indeed, if not seen objectively, apparent in dance, but in fact time and space are not separate structures at all. They form structures which are inherent in the total phenomenal presence of dance. Dance, then, is the creation of illusion of force which is spatially unified and temporally continuous. Moreover, dance is a unity of succession and a cohesive moving form. Dance is also a living, vital human experience as both formed and performed art, and it is, at the same time, a lived experience for both dancer and appreciator. To understand the relationship of live tension between dancers and appreciators, the performance at a certain time on a certain day becomes important. There exist a lot of unsolvable problems. However, for both dance education and dancing art, it is indispensable to overcome the difficulties, to grasp the concept of dance and to clarify the total structure of dance. The structure of dance performance develops from the motive of taking up a dance work to the solidification of its integration through the total grasp and the decomposition of the work. The last and most significant step must be to perform the work of dance as a phenomenon in a state of continuous and unified "being-hereness". This is a dance performance.
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  • Kazuhiko Kusudo
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 175-183
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In order to exactly define the concept, 'sport' as an object of sports-science, it is necessary to examine the relation between sport and play in the light of human movement. Examined in this paper, is the play theory of F. J. J. Buytendijk (1887-1974), a Dutch specialist in biology and philosophical anthropology, with an invaluable contribution to the study of functional movement of sports. F. J. J. Buytendijk criticized both theories, the theory of life Preparation by K. Groos who explained the causality of play on the basis of Darwinian teleological principles, and the theory of pleasure by S. Freud who explained play on the basis of mechanical psychoanalysis. Through this criticism he developed the biologico-functional theory in order to account for the dynamic character and psychological experience of play. He closely examined play of animals and basic impulses and arrived at an axiomatic conclusion "Das Spielen ist immer ein Spielen mit etwas" (To Play is always to play with something), which seems to play a pivotal role in his theory of play. Close examination of this biologic-functional axiom enables us to characterize his theory of play as follows : 1) the subject of play is governed by two basic impulses of freedom and unity and also by youthfulness definable in terms of non-directionality, an urge to move, a pathetic attitude, and shyness. 2) An object becomes an object of playing as far as it activates the player's imagination. 3) The essence of play is moving back and forth, from which may be derived the following characteristics: a) unpredictable movement of the subject and object of playing, b) determination of the field and rules of playing, c) alternation of tension and relaxation while playing, and d) development of play. 4) While sport is characterized by performance and competition, playing is not done so.
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  • Hiroko Iwata, Harumi Morishita
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 185-200
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    It may be assumed that the development of motor movement is urged not only by the growth of effectors but also by the development of the central nervous mechanisms which regulate the movement. The purpose of this study was to examine how the functions of effectors and regulatory mechanisms are related to each other in incitation of the development of motor movement. To clarify this problem an experiment was designed employing standing broad jump. First, the subject was instructed to jump as far as possible (jump A), then he was asked to jump over a designated line (jump B). Total of 57 nursery school children from two to five years of age, five female college students and two intercollegiate athletes took part in this experiment. The results were summarized as follows: 1) The children aged two years showed very small distance of jump in both jump A and jump B. Their movement patterns were very much immature. The effectors' function of two-year-old children was limited to a considerably low level. Their regulatory function was not yet formulated sufficiently. The verbal instruction often produced impelling effects over the movement of these children. 2) The distance of jump performed by the three-year-old children was somewhat improved over the level of two-year-old children. The distance covered by jump A was considerably shorter than that registered by jump B. Accordingly, the movement patterns of jump A was considerably more immature than those of jump B. Although both the effectors' function and regulatory function developed in accordance with the advance in age, the regulatory function elicited by the verbal instruction alone was not quite sufficient at this age. 3) With the advance in age, the distance of jump improved both in jump A and jump B at the ages four and five years. Their movement patterns also matured to a considerable extent. Although the difference in the distances between jump A and jump B became smaller, the distance of jump B was still longer than that of jump A. The regulatory function of the children at this age level can be improved by giving a tangible line to aim. 4) Among the female college student, the distance of jump B was somewhat longer than that of jump A. However, the distances of jump A and jump B were quite comparable in the jumping performances of the athletes.
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  • Shigeru Katsuta
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 201-208
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study was designed to investigate the morphological changes of the skeletal muscle fibers during the postnatal development. Thirty male albino rats were used for this study. Five animals were sacrificed at each age of 1, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 200 days after birth, respectively. Their M. soleus was fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide, and examined with light and electron microscopes. The results were summarized as follows: 1. Wet weight of rat soleus muscle increased rapidly until 120th day; further increase was less marked thereafter. Muscle weight per body weight (mg/100g) showed 25.7±3.6, 38.1±3.1 at 10th and 60th day, respectively, and thereafter the rate remained unchanged. 2. From 30th to 120th days there found a considerable increase in the diameter and cross sectional area of muscle fibers. The rate of increase were 6.6 and 43.2 fold, respectively, at the stage of 120th day as compared with newborn stage. 3. As regards relative volumes of the intracellular components of soleus muscle fibers, sarcoplasmic volume was, at birth, greater than myofibrillar volume. But the ratio of the myofibrillar volume to the muscle fibers showed an increasing tendency during the postnatal development (i. e. 30, 48, 80 and 86 percent at the stage of 1, 10, 30 and 60 days after birth, respectively). The increase of myofibrillar volume in the proportion to the muscle fibers was especially marked during the first 30 days. These observations suggest that there are two optimum stages of muscular training in rats, namely : 30th-60th days; stage of abrupt development, and 60th-120th days after birth; stable stage of adult.
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  • Yasuyuki Yokoyama
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 209-216
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    To examine whether or not the frequency polygons of the body weight in 296, 715 Japanese youth from 6 to 21 years old in 1971 are the bell-shaped curves, the tests of normality with reference to k-statistics are carried out on the frequency distributions of the body weight data. There are two types of departure in the distribution fromthe normal. One type is the distribution of the data which is asymmetrical or skewed. The other is characterized by either an excess or a deficit of data concentrated near the center of the range. In the normality tests, there are four types of the frequency distribution which depart from normal. They are called positively and negatively skewed, leptokurtic and platykurtic, respectively. The purposes of this study were: 1) to recognize what sorts of the frequency distribution are contained in the body weight data of the Japanese youth by the tests of normality; 2) to determine which growth curves (velocity and acceleration) are similar to the skewness and the kurtosis coefficient curves from 6 to 21 year-old subjects. The conclusions are: 1) the values of g_1 for the body weight data of every Japanese youth group are significantly positive and therefore indicate an excess in the number of items smaller than the mean; 2) the phenomena of the maximum positive skewness appear in the elementary school period; 3) the male and the female junior high school subjects have the minimum positive skewness in the frequency distribution; 4) the male and the female subjects have the maximum deceleration in the acceleration curves when they have the minimum positive skewness; 5) only eleven and fifteen year-old girls show the mesokurtic distributions in a measure of kurtosis; 6) the values of g_2 are significantly negative in the male subjects and significantly positive in the female subjects during the college period; 7) in the eight year-old boys who have the maximum positive skewness, 58.4% of the area under the frequency distribution curve lies less than the mean and 31.4% of the area under the curve lies between - 1.5 and - 0.5 standard deviation.
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  • Shinichi Demura, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Kiyoji Tanaka, Akihiro Taimura, T ...
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 217-226
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to examine a structure of flexibility in swimmers from the viewpoint of the factor analysis. Twenty-four test items which were based upon the hypothesis given by Nicks and Fleishman were selected and administered to the 153 college male swimmers. ROTOHIST technique developed by Zavara was applied to an unrotated factor pattern matrix produced by the principal factor solution, and then, the hierarchical factorial structure of flexibility was investigated. As a result, 12 factors were extracted, which did explain more than 85 per cent of the total variance; and according to the aforementioned technique, two factors with the highest eigenvalues were rotated at first and interpreted. And then, each of the rest of the factors corresponding to the next highest eigenvalue was added in due order to the previously rotated factors and again interpreted. This procedure was thus repeated in the same manner until after the eleventh rotation. While the rotated factors were interpreted at each rotation level, they were synthesized and arranged also at the whole level. Eventually, the authors drew a tree diagram. The tree diagram shows that a general flexibility exists and it may part such two ability areas as static flexibility and dynamic flexibility (i.e., swimming speed), just as Nicks and Fleishman hypothesized in their paper; however, the investigated structure of flexibility was somewhat different from theirs. That is, it was inferred that flexibiliy area of motor ability does not simply consist of some subdivided flexibility areas that were pointed out by Nicks and Fleishman, but of more complex domains that were subdivided and/or partly integrated as the degree of complexity of factors decreases.
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  • Hirohisa Wakita, Shiro Mizutani, Masayoshi Tokai, Katsumi Mita, Hisash ...
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 227-236
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been observed that the tonic discharge disappears just before a rapid voluntary movement. It is supposed that this phenomenon is caused by some inhibitory discharges coming from the center in the brain or from the brain stem to the motoneurons in the ventral horn cell of the spinal cord. In the present study, the relationship between the degree of experience in sports and the rate of appearance in the premotion silent period was investigated on 81 healthy subjects ranging in ages from 18 to 25 years old. The subjects were divided into three groups by their experiences in sports: Group A: nonathletes, Group B: students who were athletes at junior and/or senior high school, Group C: athletes who were trained from junior high school to college. The subject was requested to exert his muscle strength for two to five second at a rate of 15 to 20% of the maximum elbow extensor strength. After that, the subject was asked to respond to the flashing lamp as quickly as possible by extending his elbow joint. The EMG activity from triceps brachii was led off by bipolar surface electrodes, and the mechanical response was simultaneously recorded with resistance strain gauge transducer. The following results were obtained from this experiment: 1. There were two types of premotion silent period (p.s.p.) : "complete" and "incomplete". 2. The rate of appearance in the complete p.s.p. and total p.s.p. (complete p.s.p. plus incomplete p.s.p.) became greater in proportion to the degree of experience in sports. 3. The number of subjects who showed relatively high rate of appearance (over 51%) in the p.s.p. increased in the order of Group A, B and C. 4. There was no difference between left and right triceps brachii in the rate of appearance in the p.s.p.
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  • Kando Kobayashi, Kiyokazu Kitamura, Shintaro Toyoshima, Yoshio Mizuno, ...
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 237-246
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Aerobic power of 112 healthy non-athletic and 51 athletic women was measured by the Modified Balke's Method (Treadmill walking) and/or a running method on a motor driven treadmill. Aerobic power for non-athletic women averaged 33.7 ml/kg・min in .20's, 30.3ml/kg・min in 30's, 27.1ml/kg・min in 40's, 24.6ml/kg・min in 50's and 16.8 ml/kg・min in 60's, respectively. These values are similar to that of non-active American women reported by B. L. Drinkwater et al., although the absolute values of aerobic power (1/min) of American women were larger by 14 to 21% than that of our subjects. The following equations were obtained for non-athletic women in the present study. Aerobic power (1/min) = 2.19 - 0.0177 Age (yr). Aerobic power per kg of body weight (ml/kg・min) = 41.83 - 0.337 Age (yr). Maximum heart rate (beats/min) = 205.1 - 0. 776 Age (yr). Oxygen pulse (ml/beat) = 10.76 - 0.054 Age (yr). The mean value of aerobic power was 3.14 1/min (53.1ml/kg・min) for the field handball players of national team (N = 34) and was 2.63 1/min (46.4 ml/kg・min) for the athletes of other events (N = 17). The largest values obtained in the present study were 3.69 1/min (61.0 ml/kg・min) for a boat rower aged 19 yrs, and 61.8 ml/kg・min (3.64 1/min) for a field handball player aged 20 yrs. Aerobic power for non-athletic women was compared with that for girls, which was obtained previously in our laboratory. Aerobic power (1/min) of 20's, 30's, 40's and 50's for non-athletic women corresponded to that of the girls aged 14, 13, 12 and 11 yrs, respectively. The relative values of aerobic power (ml/kg・min) for non-athletic women over 30 yrs of age were smaller than that of any other girls elder than 4 yrs of age.
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  • Terushi Murayama
    Type: Article
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 247-257
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    ( I ) Purpose. Judo's history is rather short. Perhaps it was not until the first International Judo Tournament (1956) that Judo gained international attention as a sport. In that 1st. tournament the attitude of the Japanese, in competition was one of caution; avoid hurting the opponent. By the 2nd. tournament, however, caution was no longer needed; in its place, the Japanese put forth genuine effort for the first time. The 3rd. tournament saw the Dutch taking the championship. The 4th. tournament saw the first establishment of a weight class system. This brought Judo, as a sport, into line with such sports as weightlifting and wrestling.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 259-264
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages App6-
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1979 Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: December 01, 1979
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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