In the period from the establishment of the institution of modern school system (1872) to the revision of the standard for elementary school facilities (1899), the playground of elementary schools in Japan had been well equipped. During this period, the following five conditions were the requisites of establishing a playground : a) The surface of a playground should be flat without any obstacles, b) a playground should be established in parallel with a school building, c) a playground should be located at the south or the east of a school building, d) the space of a playground obtained by locating a school building in the corner of school area to assign the rest of the space for the playground should occupy more than a half of the school area, and e) the form of a playground should be square. The purpose of this paper is to point out some primary factors of these conditions which exerted influence on fixing the type of the playground of elementary schools. The materials, chiefly used for this paper, consisted of the Manuals of School Building Plan which were published by the Ministry of Education (1882, 1892 and 1895) and the Standard for Elementary School Facilities enacted in 1890 and revised in 1890 and 1899. The summary of the result was as follows : 1) The provisions of a playground in the regulation of a school building which were introduced from England, U.S.A., and Germany and translated into Japanese by the Ministry of Education had influence on the conditions a) and b). 2) The condition c) was based on the hygienic considerations upon the sunshine and draft. 3) The primary factors which had influence on the conditions d) and e) were the restriction of educational finance in local public bodies, the introduction of military gymnastics to the physical education program and the promotion of extracurricular activities (chiefly ball games) in the 20's of the Meiji era. 4) The conditions a) and e) were strengthened by the promotion of modern school physical education and sports.
Dance as a visual stimulus enables audience to picture various images in their minds. The contents of dance are communicated to them through dance performances which consist of such elements as body, time, space, force, and others. When a choreographer creates dance, he/she always considers images audience will hold through looking at dance performances. Therefore, it is important for dance composition to know what kind of image a certain dance makes audience picture. In order to study the image of dance, semantic differential method seems to be useful. However, new scales must be constructed, because there is no definite scale for that purpose yet. The new scales evaluating the image of dance must be constructed in a scientific and objective way, and they should enables us to extract effective semantic dimensions for dance analysis from human emotional responses to a dance performance. In order to resolve the problem mentioned above, multivariate statistical analysis procedures were applied, and following inferences were induced. 1. In the 2nd experiment of three sequential ones, 118 adjectives were chosen from word samples which consisted of the words 887 students expressed as the image toward eight kinds of dance performances as stimuli. The new Scales were constructed with 46 adjective pairs, most of which showed high loadings on the factors extracted from principal factor analysis and normal varimax rotation applied to 118×118 correlation matrix (table 1, 2, 3, 4). 2. Eight factors were extracted from factor analysis applied to 46×46 correlaion matrix which was obtained from the 3rd experiment where 190 students were asked to respond to six different dance performances according to the 46 semantic scales. These factors were named as follows: 1) emotionality, 2) activeness, 3) flexibility, 4) value, 5) harmoniousness, 6) weightiness, 7) variety, and 8) spatiality. The first four factors are referring to inner and emotional aesthetic value judgement, and 5), 6), 7), and 8) show outer and perceptional comprehensive judgement (table 5). 3. Six kinds of dance performances as stimuli were composed so as to be contrasting in terms of movement temporality. It was inferred that three kinds of dance performances consisted of slow movements were imaged as unpleasant, Passive, harmonious, heavy, and monotonous, while other three kinds of performances consisted of quick movements were imaged as pleasant, active, inharmonious, light, and variant in the eight dimensional semantic space constructed in this study. Thus, the validity of these 46 semantic scales was considered to be high and to be applicable enough to the study of the image of dance (figure 1,2).
The purpose of this field study was to examine the effects of active and passive image-rehearsals in terms of film modeling on both performing and imaging the skill of breast stroke, from the view points of Bandura's modeling theory and neurophysiological account of functions of image rehearsal. Twenty-eight male undergraduates acted as subjects and participated in one week swimming training (two hours a day). They were randomly divided into two groups, active image-rehearsal group (AIRG) and passive image-rehearsal group (PIRG) on the basis of their performance of swimming distance on the first training day, while fifteen male subjects were randomly selected as control group (CONG) for image tests mentioned later. AIRG and PIRG subjects received different treatments for 3 min. after film modeling from the second day. AIRG subjects were instructed to rehearse in terms of imagining themselves performing the breast stroke, while PIRG subjects were instructed to rehearse in terms of imagining themselves seeing the film model. Dependant variables were the scores of three tests (as to vividness, controllability and swimming image tests) concerning imagery of the breast stroke administered twice for all the subjects and the performance of the breast stroke skill measured twice for AIRG and PIRG subjects in regard to swimming distance and form, on the first (pre-test) and seventh (post-test) training day. As the results, it was revealed that the scores of vividness and controllability tests for AIRG and PIRG subjects significantly increased but not for CONG subjects, while the mean scores of both tests for AIRG subjects were significantly greater than those for PIRG subjects in the post-test session. Concerning the breast stroke skills, the performance of the swimming distance and form for AIRG and PIRG subjects significantly increased, but no significant differences of distance and form between two groups were detected in the pre and post-test sessions. The results of case analysis, however, indicated that, in the post-test session, the performance of swimming distance for AIRG subjects tended to be greater than that for PIRG subjects. These findings seem to suggest that active image-rehearsal in terms of film modeling will facilitate observational learning of motor skills more effectively than passive image-rehearsal in terms of film modeling.
The purpose of present study was to investigate the reaction to the horizontally moving object with special reference to the mechanisms of anticipation. The reaction time was measured by using the stimuli which were directional reversal of the moving object. The stimulus was provided successively and periodically in order to establish anticipation to stimulus presentation. Stop of motion or deceleration was inserted occasionally between directional reversal to break anticipation. Then normal adult female university students served as subjects. The subject was asked to respond to the stimulus by pushing the conventional telegraph key. The action potentials of forearm flexors and extensors were ledoff by biolpar surface electrodes. Horizontal eye movement was recorded by Electro-Oculography. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) As the degree of anticipation to the directional reversal became higher by periodic stimuli, reaction with negligible latency appeared. On that occasion, stopping the motion or reducing velocity, error reaction occured. This means that motor output was provided independently of sensory input. 2) Of the possible two kinds of anticipation of timing point, temporal anticipation plays a more important role than spacial one. 3) Reaction time with the moving object was shorter than with flash of light. 4) The eye movement, which was in most cases saccadic with the target velocity employed in the present study, was also influenced by anticipation. As anticipation became established, eyes saccadicly moved in advance of target to the position where the stimulus will be presented, and stayed there waiting the stimulus presentation. It suggests that there exists the mechanism which enables quick reception of the information about the changes of the external world.
Maximal aerobic power was measured on 180 non-athletic and athletic men, using a treadmill walking method (Modified Balke's). The following equations were obtained in the present study : For non-athletic men (ages 20 to 72 yr); Maximum ventilation (1/min) =100.4-0.719 age (yr.). Aerobic power (1/min) =3.02-0.0186 age (yr.). Aerobic power per kg of body weight (ml/kg. min) = 49.88 - 0.3019 age (yr.). Maximum heart rate (beats/min) = 201.7 - 0.583 age (yr.). For athletic men, ages 30 to 72 yr. : Maximum ventilation (1/min) = 129.3-1.042 age (yr.). Aerobic power (1/min)=4.51-0.0347 age (yr.). Aerobic power per kg of body weight (ml/kg. min)=61.57-0.2747 age (yr.). Maximum heart rate (beats/min) = 208.0 - 0.706 age (yr.). Aerobic power (1/min) of athletic men was greater than that of non-athletic men by 40.2% in 40s and 60s, 25.7% in 30s and 16.9% in 50s. Aerobic power per kg of body weight (ml/kg. min) was greater than that of non-athletic men by 60% in 60s, 35-38% in 40s, 50s and 70s. The inclination of regression line of aerobic power (ml/kg. min) to age was similar each other between athletic and non-athletic men. The subjects over 30 years old were classified into 4 groups (Groups A, B, C, D) based on the running distance and frequency of their usual training. Aerobic power of Group-A (5-16km running every day) averaged 3.67 1/min (59.9ml/kg. min) for 30s, 2.98 1/min (50.4ml/kg. min) for 40s, 2.51 1/min (49.8ml/kg. min) for 50s and 2.56 1/min (50.1ml/kg. min) for 60s. These values were greater than that of Group-D (sedentary) by 133% in 60s and 68-27% in 30s to 50s. The greatest individual values of aerobic power for each age group were 57. 0ml/kg. min in 40s, 58.7ml/kg. min in 50s, 57.9ml/kg. min in 60s and 38.8ml/kg. min in 70s. These valued are similar with that of Caucacian middle-old aged athletes.
The authors' interest has been concerned with the effectiveness of physical training in the prophylaxis of arteriosclerosis. As an approach to the clarification of the mechanism underlying the preventive effect, investigations have been primarily conducted on the alteration in cholesterol metabolism caused by a long-term physical exercise. Male rats, 5-6 weeks of age and weighing approximately 100g, were trained for 5-6 weeks according to a treadmill running program. They were running at 12m/min for 60min/day, 6 days/week. At the end of the training program, the level of cholesterol in serum and liver of the trained and untrained (control) rats was determined. Simultaneously, the incorporation of ^<14>C-acetate into liver cholesterol was studied with both groups of animals. Ten μCi of sodium acetate-1-^<14>C were given intraperitoneally per 100g of body weight of rats. Animals were killed 90 minutes after the injection. Liver cholesterol was isolated and assayed for the radioactivity using a scintillation spectrometer. The average ± standard deviation of the total cholesterol in serum were 63.59±8.16 and 68.61±8.26mg/100ml in the trained and untrained rats, respectively. Those of the free cholesterol were 12.54±1.51 and 15.34±3.55mg/100ml, respectively. The trained rats showed a decrease in both total and free cholesterol of liver, compared with the untrained group. The amounts of total cholesterol were 4.62±0.30 and 4.73±0.43mg/g liver in the trained and untrained rats respectively, and those of free cholesterol were 1.03±0.11 and 1.16±0.17mg/g liver, respectively. In the trained rats the synthesis of cholesterol in liver was significantly stimulated compared with that in the control rats. The incorporated radioactivities were 1,254±190cpm/mg cholesterol in the trained rats, whereas 811±167cpm/mg cholesterol in the untrained rats. The results of this experiment demonstrates that the physical training produces an enhanced turnover of cholesterol, which would be favorable for protecting the accumulation of cholesterol esters in the wall of arteries.