Through our three years' examination on the factors determining the attitudes towards practice of the required university physical education with the subjects of 1962 students, some main findings are summarized as follows: 1) Among the environmental (external) factors determining the attitudes towards practice of the required university physical education, the greatest was the conditions on which it was practiced, especially the amount of space in varied facilities available per capita was most influencial. 2) On students' personal and subjective conditions supposed to be determining their attitudes, the greatest were (a) their physical fitness level, and interest and willingness needed for active participation in sports, and (b) whether students have had built their positive attitudes towards physical education classes previous to their entrance in the universities. 3) Concerning the experiences in sports club activities, the length of experience in membership did not influence as a factor. 4) Those students, who were active in sports club activities, recognized the value of the required physical education, and found joy and pleasure in participation, but their evaluation on the classes was rather low. Generally speaking however, those students showed their positive attitudes in participation. The students who were the members of sports clubs with less and irregular participation tended to find less joy and pleasure in the classes. 5) Those students, who have had no experience in sports club activities, thought that they could improve their physical fitness by participating in the required physical education, and their evaluation on the classes was relatively higher. The required university physical education, therefore, seems to provide these students important place and opportunity for their regular practice in sports and physical exercises.
The present study was designed to identify characteristics of the students who were the influentials (influential persons who maintain involvement in a certain activity) of intramural sports programs and to describe the flow of such influence. The data on which the article is based were taken from the inquiry on intramural sports events held at Tottori University in 1979, The procedures of analysis applied to this study, roughly speaking, can be seen in E. Katz and P. F. Lazarsfeld (1955). The results may be Summarized in the following way: 1) With regard to evaluating the impact of various influences in the decision-making process associate with intramural participation, the impact of informal personal advice was assessed by most of the respondents to be greater than the impact of formal communication media. 2) The data show that habitual exercisers are more likely to function as participation leaders and that the influence flows from them to the less active strata of the students. However, at the same time, it seems reasonable to infer that the advice circulations within the same sports life strata are more important as a determinant of participation in intramurals. 3) In considering the profiles of the intramural sports leaders, there is an indication that the students who are selected for intercollegiate varsity teams may not play the part of leaders in intramurals, despite the fact that there is a higher proportion of leadership among the habitual exercisers. 4) Leaders are influenced more by the intramural publicity through such posters, handbills, or pamphlets, than are the non-leaders.
To investigate age differences in mechanical power output of human muscle the force-velocity relationships have been examined on 87 males consisting of 4 different age groups: 23, 20, 21, and 23 subjects for the ages of 10, 13, 15, and 19 years respectively. With the use of a modified Wilkie's apparatus the velocities were measured at right angle during elbow flexion by after-load method. The loads applied were 10 to 60% of the maximum isometric strength. The maximum shortening velocity was also measured with no load. All the data were fitted to Hill's characteristic equation. (P+a)(y+b) = (P_0 +a)b where P is load or force, V is velocity, P_0 is isometric strength, a and b are constants. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Force-velocity relations calculated after correcting the effect of inertia of the forearm and apparatus were well fitted to Hill's equation in different age groups (r >0.994). 2) The ratios of a/P_0, which characterize P-V relation, were almost constant (0.40-0.45) regardless of age, and thus the maximum power (PVmax) appeared under the load of about 35%P_0. 3) In the values of P_0, PVmax and the velocities under various loads their increments in 10-15 years of age were approximately 90% of total increment in 10-19 years of age. This increment (i.e., 90%) was found to be considerably less than that of simple reaction time quoted. 4) The velocities/forearm length have also developed with age, suggesting that the improvement in velocity at any load could not merely be due to the growth of muscle length, but due to the qualitative development in muscle function. 5) From these results, it was concluded that the age difference in muscle power should be attributed more to the muscular function rather than the nervous function.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the shoulder adduction strength and the stationary enduring time in the straight body cross on rings. Eight-five experienced collegiate gymnasts were assigned to the measurement of two types of maximal shoulder adduction strength (isometric and eccentric) and the stationary holding time in the straight body cross on rings. Electromyogram (EMG) was also recorded on eight out of these subjects during the measurements of the shoulder adduction strength and the performance of straight body cross on rings. The results were as follows: 1) The isometric and eccentric strengths per body weight of the successful performers of the straight body cross (N=43) were above 0.70 and 0.85, respectively. These two figures were significantly greater than those of the unsuccessful performers (N=42). 2) The ratio of the eccentric shoulder-adductive strength per body weight to the isometric one was significantly higher in the successful performers than that of the unsuccessful performers. But there was a significant positive correlation between these two types of strength. 3) When the successful performers of the straight body cross were further divided into two groups of those who use the straight body cross in competition (N=23) and those who do not use this stunt (N=20) no significant differences were found between these two groups in the isometric and eccentric strengths per body weight and also in the ratio of the latter to the former. But the stationary enduring time of the straight body cross of those who use this stunt in competitions was significantly longer than that of non-using group. 4) There was high correlation between shoulder adduction strength per body weight and stationary enduring time in straight body cross on rings; And the regression line of the group using the straight body cross in competitions was different from that of the non-using group. 5) The pattern of electric discharge from the muscle at the shoulder adduction was similar to that of the stationary holding position on rings. But the amount of electric discharge of the latter was greater than that of the former.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the sound accompanying the repetitive movement of the step test upon the heart rate and respiration rate during and after the test. The effects of metronomic and musical sounds respectively were examined. The subjects climed up and down a step to the sounds which were set at a regular speed. The height of the step and the speed corresponded to the intensity of the exercise. The results are as follows: 1) The heart rate was higher with metronomic than with musical stimuli when the exercise was intense. The heart rate was lower with metronomic than with musical stimuli when the exercise was not intense. So it could be said that physical responses towards mechanical sounds and towards musical stimuli were different. 2) In all the ten experiments, heart rate and respiration rate were mutually related. The pattern of their increase and decrease, however, were not necessarily the same. 3) Whether the exercise was intense or not, the subjects found musical stimuli more agreeable than metronomic sounds.
Janken, by which service side was decided for single match of table tennis, was observed when female subjects (first year student; mean age was nineteen years old) had a lesson for physical education. Among 37 subjects who played the match by their right hands, eight subjects played janken by their left hands, but twenty-six subjects played it by their right hands shifting their rackets from their right hands to their left ones. There were no differences between the two groups in a questionare of laterality which consisted of 40 items of daily movement. Subjects was asked which side they often used for each item. Y-G personality inventory, however, showed significant differences between the two groups. The significant differences were observed on the C, G, and R scales at five persent level, and on the Ag and A scales at one percent level. This indicates that the subjects who played janken by their right hands have more active and extroverted personality than the subjects who played it by their left hands. And the latter subjects seem to be less aggressive, changeless in feeling, and quiet. The constantly used hand couldn't be decided only for three subjects. When the subjects was asked which hand they had used to play janken before the match, only fourteen subjects out of the twenty-six subjects who played it by their right hands made correct answers. The incorrect answer would be made because of the lack of complete image of the situation. Especially they couldn't image the active feeling on the match condition. It is considered that the psychological set against the opponent caused the shift of the racket to play janken by the right hand for active subjects only, but some of them couldn't image the situation well and made incorrect answers. There remains, however, some problems. Why the more extroverted subjects, who felt the active feeling, changed the racket and played janken by their right hands is not explained now. And it is also further problem whether the subjects, who played janken at the table tennis match by their right hands, play it by the same hands at the tennis match or at the badminton match.