The purposes of this study are to clarify the effect of participation in the sport club upon personality development and to gain some basic data to be used for the guidance in the sport club, especially in the community sport clubs which are remarkably increasing recently. The subjects used in this study were a total of 254 children (149 boys and 105 girls) who participated in Kyoto City Mini-Basketball Club and were examined from 1975 to 1978, and 500 of non-member school children (245 boys and 255 girls) examined in 1978. All of them were between 10 and 12 years of age. Sociometric Test and Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory were conducted together with the examination of behavioral characteristics and sports skill and the following results were obtained: 1) After discussing inclusively their out-door playtime and the number of friends outside of the club, it is presumed that those who are the members of the mini-basketball club have more emotional stability and leadership. Furthermore, girls show more social adjustment and tend to be more active than non-member school children. 2) The children in the mini-basketball club tend to organize sub-groups according to the primary schools they belong to, and in the case of boys, they are apt to gather around a popular person who is an "old-timer" in the club. 3) Generally speaking, the children Who hold higher rank in Sociometric Status mark greater scores in emotional stability, activity and leadership in Y-G Personality Inventory (show type D), and also in sport skill test. Furthermore, they show brightness, cheerfulness, promptness, kindness and attractiveness in terms of their behavioral characteristics.
Certain studies concerning human perception has revealed that vision dominates all the other sense modalities. This study tried to confirm the visual dominance over kinesthesis by taking a case of memorizing an arm movement which was visually monitored, and to record a score in an attempt to demonstrate the degree of visual dominance over kinesthesis. An arm positioning task was selected for this experiment, and its basic procedure of measurement will follow. First, subjects memorized a standard distance by vision and kinesthesis. While moving the right arm for a certain standard distance, they were allowed to observe the movement by vision. But some artificial conflicts were produced between these two sense modalities in this case. Then, subjects attempted to repeat the arm movement for the same standard distance, when the conflicts were removed. How much the reproduced distance was close to the visual or kinesthetic information which were conflicting with each other, was recorded, which was presented in per cent scores. The results indicated the followings: 1) Almost all subjects did not realize the conflicts. While the visual dominance score showed that vision dominated kinesthesis, the score also showed that the dominance, was not complete. 2) The longer the standard distance, the stronger was the visual dominance, which may be interpreted as follows. As the standard distance increased, the kinesthetic matching errors became greater, while the visual matching errors were relatively constant. These trends suggested that when the standard distance became longer, subjects depended on the visual information more strongly than when it was shorter. 3) Individual differences of visual dominance score were examined. The results did not necessarily support the existence of indivisual differences. But, further studies may be necessary to draw any definite conclusions on this matter.
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a hypothetical approach to evaluate the game sense of rugby football, in which constructing a test to measure such sense in rugby football was a part. Game sense has been defined in the previous study as the ability concerned with the choice of plays in the game. Game sense in rugby football must be considered at two levels, i.e., individual, and unit/team levels. The former is the ability concerned with the choice of individual plays, while the latter being that of unit/team plays as a whole. Every player must have certain game sense at his individual level, but game sense at unit/team level is mainly the concern of the leader. Furthermore, it is conceived that each game situation can be arranged on a continuum by identifying the number of effective plays to choose from for better performance. In this study a ball carrier's game sense at individual level in a situation which has only a few effective plays to choose from was evaluated. For each test item film of actual game situations, depicting various scenes such as scrum or line-out and then leading through to a critical scene was shown. The subject was asked to respond how a ball-carrier should play in each critical situation, and answers were scored. Reliability of the test was estimated by the split-half method and coefficient correlations of .74 was obtained. To examine the validity of the test, two measures were set as criteria, the level of performance in rugby games, and performance in this field experiment, in which the concerned game sense plays a vital part. Both procedures were successful in validating the test. These results suggest that the approach to the evaluation of game sense is promising.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postural position on oxygen uptake, heart rate, and ventilation during submaximal and maximal work by use of a bicycle ergometer. Ten healthy male subjects, aged 19-33 years, performed submaximal and maximal tests on a bicycle ergometer in three different body positions. The postural positions during exercise used in this study were sitting (S) position, the horizontal supine (H) position, and the supine position with legs elevated to 45° (E). Each subject performed 5-min submaximal tests of three different intensities and maximal tests with stepwise incremental loading in each body position. In submaximal tests, no significant differences were observed in oxygen uptake and heart rate at a given work load among S-, H-, and E-positions. The average values of maximal oxygen uptake obtained in H- and E-positions were corresponded to 95.5% and 87.6% of maximal oxygen uptake in S-position, respectively. Maximal heart rate in H- and E-positions were 2.4% and 6.5% lower compared to cycling in S-position, respectively. On these values, the statistically significant differences were found between S- and E-positions and between H- and E-positions (p < 0.05-0.001). Total work performed until exhaustion in H- and E-positions was equivalent to 64.9% and 58.3% of total work in S-position, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed among these three positions (p < 0.01-0.001).
With an intention to investigate the developmental tendencies of motor ability in infants, tests of pass-or-fail type were administered. Total of 349 infants (198 boys and 151 girls), ages ranging from 4 to 6 years, were measured from Apr. 1977 through Oct. 1978, using about 39 items from "Kano's motor ability test". The test consisted of such 4 elements as (a) body balancing, (b) body coordination, (c) manual dexterity, and (d) reverse action of arms or legs, and imitating. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. The developmental tendencies of motor ability viewed from the percentage of passing in the items. 1) The ability of standing with eyes closed was generally established at the age of 4 years. About 40 % of the 6-year-olds passed in the test of standing on tiptoes with eyes open (10 seconds), and about 70 % passed in the test of single leg standing with eyes open (right and left, 10 seconds each). 2) All of the 4-year-olds passed in the test of walking on a straight line, and more than 90 % of the 5-year-olds passed in the test of one-footed skip (right and left, 5 m each). The ability of standing high jump in 20 cm was generally established at the age of 4 years. More than 95 % cleared 40 cm height at the age of 5 years and a half. All of the 6-year-old boys passed in the throwing test for accuracy with a small ball (1.5 m, pass when one hits in 3 trials). 3) The ability in drawing by use of a pencil and in manipulating a pair of scissors rapidly developed at the age of 5 years. Tapping with a pencil (30 seconds, over 110) was more than 90 % as the percentage of pass, at the age of 6 years. Bar-gripping reaction time (40 cm, pass when one grips in 5 trials) was continuously improved from 80 % till 90 % as the percentage of pass, increased from the ages 4 to 6 years. 4) Counting action on fingers was established with 100 % at the age of 5 years and a half, and action of tapping laps with hands, at the age of 4 years. 2. As a result of measuring the 39 items, the developmental tendencies of motor ability may be classified into 7 types. 3. Boys were superior to girls in many performances of ball throw, but inferior in performances of tapping and rhythmical movements of the body. 4. In comparison with the preceding study (Matsui, 1953), remarkable increase in the percentage of pass was found in jump items, but decrease was observed on items concerning body balancing.
Maximal oxygen uptakes (V^^.O_2 max) of 232 young children (117 males and 115 females) aged from 3 to 6 years were determined by means of exhaustive ground run. Their height, weight, and skinfold thickness were also measured. Furthermore, 142 of the subjects aged from 4 to 6 years performed 5-minute run and the distance covered was recorded. The following results were obtained: 1) No significant sex differences were found in body height and weight. However, upper arm skinfold thicknesses of females were significantly larger than those of males at all the ages; 3 years, 4 years, former half of 5 years, latter half of 5 years and former half of 6 years. 2) Mean values of heart rate during the period of collecting expired air for the determination of V^^.O_2 max were between 200.0 and 208.3 bpm. 3) Absolute values of V^^.O_2max (1/min) for males were .655, .789, .894, .922 and 1.004 at the respective ages of 3, 4, former half of 5, latter half of 5 and former half of 6 years. The values of females were .523, .751, .800, .837 and .868 1/min at the corresponding ages. Significant sex differences were found at all the ages with an exception of 4 years. 4) Relative values of V^^.O_2max (ml/kg/min) for males reached 42.6, 47.4, 50.5, 48.7 and 48.1 at the respective ages. Those of females were 35.9, 44.5, 44.5, 45.6 and 44.7 respectively. In V^^.O_2max (ml/kg/min), the assumed index of aerobic work capacity, males were significantly superior to females with single exception of four year-old group. 5) As to oxygen pulse (ml/beat) males registered larger figures than females at all the ages except one. Here again, such sex difference was not observed for the group of four year-old children. 6) When a histogram of V^^.O_2max (ml/kg/min) was constructed for all the ages from three to six, years inclusive, the scores distributed almost symmetrical around their mean values, i.e., 48.4 for males and 44.4 for females, with standard deviations of 5.4 and 5.0 for males and females, respectively. X^2-test revealed that the deviations of these distributions from the normal curve was not significant statistically. 7) Regression equations of absolute values of V^^.O_2max (y; 1/min) to body weights (x; kg) were y^^^ = .052x - .067 (n = 117, r = .845) for males y^^^ = .039x + .096 (n = 115, r = .750) for females. 8) Regression equations of 5-minute endurance run (y; m) to relative values of V^^.O_2 max (x; ml/kg min) were y^^^ = 4.45x + 650.2 (n = 73, r = .273) for males y^^^ = 3.62x + 614.5 (n = 69, r = .308) for females.