Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 25 , Issue 3
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages App5-
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Eizo Kudo
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 163-178
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the days of the Tokugawa Shogunate, hawking was a sport practised by the lord of feudal clans. The present study is an attempt to investigate the hawking in the Akita Clan during the Tokugawa Era and to elucidate its characteristics as a sport from a standpoint of the history of physical culture. So far, there has been no systematic study focused on hawking practised by the clan lords. After the examination of the various historical materials of the Akita Clan, following results were obtained. 1) Hawking was practised in the clan during the period 1603 - 1826 by the first lord Yoshinobu through the tenth lord Yoshiatsu. The eleventh and the twelfth lords, however, did not go hawking because of his early death and the disturbance immediately before the fall of the Tokugawa Regime, respectively. 2) The first lord was the most enthusiastic about hawking and held it over 655 days in his lifetime. From the second lord to the tenth, the total number of the days of thier hawking events confirmed by the official documents are 95, 238, 74, 15, 8, 5, 26, 25 and 4, respectively. Additional number of the days for hawking by each lord can be suggested, since some deficiency is found in the historical documents. 3) The number of hawking fields in the clan was over 70, and the favored ones were Abukawa, Taihei, Soegawa, Kariwano, Shimosuji and Semboku. Such remote fields as Odate and Asamai,110 km north and 60 km south of the lord's castle respectively, were suitable for the long term hawkings. 4) Hawking by the clan lords was held mainly in July and between November and February. The latter period is cold season, but there remain some documents which show that the lords were too enthusiastic about hawking to care about unfavorable weather. They usually departed for hawking early in the morning and occasionally returned home late at night. 5) An exclusively appointed hawker was in charge of raising and training hawks which were usually brought from the Matsumae Clan (Hakodate), because it was difficult to catch hawks in the Akita Clan. 6) Hawking was an event conducted by the lord, which required 10 to over 200 followers. In hawking, the followers, moving forward in a body, roused game from cover and a hawker released his hawk, but the detailed procedure of the actual hawking is still unknown. However, the hawking held at Yotsugoya, for example, had a minute plan for hawking carefully organized and had a similarity with their military training. 7) The kinds of game caught in each hawking were mainly bean geese, pheasants and wild ducks, and its number ranged several to over one hundred. The game caught was either given to the retainers or served at a banquet after the hawking. 8) Hawks and game captured by hawking formed a very high proportion of the total amount of gifts exchanged between the clan lords and the Tokugawa tycoon. Especially the hawks and game presented by the tycoon were a great honor to the clan and a celebration was held for it. 9) In order to secure game, the birds were protected in the hawking fields, and the lord's common people were prohibited from entering the fields and using a hawk there. 10) The frequency of hawking was overwhelmingly larger than that of other kinds of pastime and events enjoyed by the lord, such as martial arts, horsing, archery and noh (classic Japanese drama), and viewing of folk dancing and fireworks. Since several documents of the clan unexceptionally say, "Our lord was in quite a good humor after hawking", it is reasonable to speculate that each lord took great delight in hawking. Hawking was a large-scale event, costing a great deal and requiring an elaborate preparation, but it should be claimed that it played an important role in the govemment of the clan and it was the most fascinating sport among the lords of the Akita Clan during the Tokugawa Era.
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  • Mikio Tokunaga, Hideo Tatano, Kimio Hashimoto, Ryozo Kanezaki
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 179-190
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine behavioral intention, attitudes and beliefs men joggers and nonexercisers have regarding regular jogging, and the relation of those variables to their jogging behavior. To facilitate this examination, an instrument adopted from Fishbein's Behavioral Intention Model was developed and tested. The first hypothesis stated that joggers and nonexercisers 20 years of age and older had different attitudes, beliefs and behavioral intentions about regular jogging. The second stated that Fishbein's Model could be used to predict people's jogging behavior. A total of 204 males completed and mailed back usable questionnaires. Subjects were called back two weeks after completing the questionnaire and asked if they had run regularly during the prior two weeks. Peason's product moment, point biserial and multiple correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the effects of components in Fishbein's Model. The results were summarised as follows: 1) Joggers and nonexercisers had significantly different behavioral intention, attitudes and beliefs about regular jogging. Especially, joggers responded positively and favorably on behavioral intention, attitude toward behavior, belief about consequences of behavior, and normative beliefs. 2) Fishbein's Model seemed to predict regular jogging behavior fairly well (1) The model's assumption that there is a high correlation between behavior and behavioral intention was substantiated, because its correlation was found to be .899. (2) The present findings were compatible with Fishbein's contention that behavioral intention could be predicted, from a linear combination of attitude toward behavior and subjective norm concerning behavior. However, normative beliefs predicted subjective norm more effectively than did the sum of the product of the normative beliefs times motivation to comply (Σnb_imc_i). (3) The attitudinal components played the most important role in determining jogging behavior and behavioral intention. But attitude toward behavior correlated better with behavior and behavioral intention than did attitude toward objects. (4) It was found that attitude toward behavior correlated highly with the sum of the product of beliefs about consequences times evaluations of consequences (Σb_ie_i). But attitude toward behavior correlated higher with beliefs about consequences than did Σb_ie_i. 3) As mentioned above, although Fishbein's Model have validity and feasibility concerning sport behavior, a proposed modification may improve its model further.
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  • Junko Ota, Masahiro Kaneko
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 191-196
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The Kraus-Weber Test was newly administered to 3247 boys and girls (6 - 16 years of age) of the middle and midwest Japan, whose body height, weight and sitting height were greater than the Japanese in 1955. By comparing the present data with those reported by Noguchi et al (on Japanese in 1955) and by Kraus and Hirschland (on American and European in 1954) the following result was obtained. 1) Of the subjects tested, 58.6% failed in one test item, 35.1% in two items and 5.5% in three items out of six items. No significant differences were observed between the samples collected at different districts and schools. 2) The over-all (test) failure (%) has shown to decrease with age, drastically at the ages of 6 - 9. This decrement with age was entirely due to decrement in the strength (test) failure (%) and not due to the flexibility (test) failure (%). 3) This over-all failure was less (i.e., better) than those of the former Japanese and American at any age levels, but more (i.e., worse) than that of European at the ages of 6 - 8. Therefore, at the ages from 9-16, the present Japanese youth was found to be best fit among the data compared above. 4) In the strength failure (%) the present sample was better than the former Japanese and much better than the American except 6 years old, but worse than the European of the ages 6 - 10 (about the same after the age 11). 5) In the flexibility failure (%), the present and the former Japanese, being about the same, were slightly better than the European and much better than the American. From these results the present status in the fitness of Japanese Youth was discussed.
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  • Osamu Aoyagi, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Shinichi Demura, Anwar Pasau Muhamma ...
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 197-206
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purposes of this study were 1) to clarify the factorial structure of coordination concerned balancing performance in childhood, and 2) to examine test batteries estimating each factor. Total of 22 test variables were administered to 234 kindergarden children. Principal factor solution and normal varimax rotation were applied to the correlation matrix which was calculate with 22 test variables. Then the following 9 factors were extracted and interpreted: 1) Coordination for jumping and agile movement. 2) Coordination for stand-up-movement, 3) Physical factor, 4) Coordination for body rotation. 5) Coordination for keeping posture balance in rotation, 6) Locomotive coordination, 7) Coordination for keeping posture balance at standing, 8) Coordination of trunk, 9) Coordination for forward rolling. The formulas for estimating each coordination score concerned balancing performance in childhood were devised as follows; SF1 = 2.4X_<10> + 0.8X_<11> + 0.08X_<13> + 37.1, SF2 = 0.8X_8 + 0.3X_9 + 3.9X_<20> + 21.7, SF4 = 2.3X_1 + 3.8X_6 + 6.8X_<15> + 32.0, SF5 = 3.6X_2 - 0.4X_3 + 0.4X_9 - 0.3X_<16> + 2.2X_<18> + 27.1, SF6 = 0.02X_4 + 0.2X_<12> + 0.001X_<17> + 42.7, SF7 = 2.1X_<14 >+ 0.7X_<16> + 0.02X_<17> + 38.7, SF8 = - 0.03X_4 + 0.4X_7 + 0.9X_<15> + 0.01X_<17> + 0.3X_<18> + 48.6, SF9 = 2.0X_5 + 0.2X_<13> + 0.4X_<15> + 2.3X_<16 >- 0.001X_<17> +1.0X_<20> + 15.1, (SF3 is omitted because of physical factor.) Note; X_1 = Body spinning, X_2 = Jumping up with feet touching hips while in the air (a), X_3 = Jumping up with feet touching hips while in the air (b), X4 = Walking straight with eyes closed, X_5 = Forward roll, X_6 = Three step turn, X_7 = Leg raise balance, X_8 = Standing from knee bent (a), X_9 = Standing from knee bent (b), X_<10> = Jumping full turn right, X_<11> = Jumping full turn left, X_<12> = Walking and full turn on the balance beam, X_<13> = Feet hopping, X_<14 > = Feet balance on beam, X_<15> = Side roll, X_<16> = Foot balance on beam, X_<17> = Stepping stone test. X_<18> = Standing up from lying prone and dash, X_<19> = Shuttle run, X_<20> = Single leg hopping, X_<21> = Height, X_<22> = Weight.
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  • Mitsuyo Terada
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 207-213
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Male Wistar rats having been sacrificed at 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, 16th, and 26-38th weeks of age respectively, musculi rectus femoris were removed and subjected to histochemical and chemical analyses to investigate the growth of musculature. The examination at each age included five to eight animals. The analyses were made of the fiber area, fiber composition classified by the staining for myosin-ATPase and SDH, estimated total fiber number, and contents of water, protein, phospholipid, and triglyceride. The fiber areas at 4th week of age were 801, 539, and 619 μm^2 for the FG, FOG, and SO fibers respectively. The areas at 26-38th week of age were 6.1, 4.9, and 3.4 times greater for the FG, FOG, and SO fibers respectively than those at 4th week of age. As for the fiber composition, it was found that the aging after 6th week of age resulted in a decrease in the rate of FOC fiber and increase in FG fiber, whereas the rate of SO fiber was unchanged. The estimated total fiber number per muscle was decreased with aging. As for the chemical compositions, it was also found that the aging after 6th week of age caused a decrease in the phospholipid content, although the water and protein contents were unchanged. The triglyceride contents at 4th to 8th weeks of age were higher than those at 10th to 26-38th weeks of age. A possible explanation for these findings with aging was discussed.
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  • Nobuo Tanaka, Yasutoshi Senga, Makoto Mayuzumi, Junzo Tsujita, Seiki H ...
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 215-232
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Anthropometrical measurements were made on four subject groups of college students, namely 178 male non-athletes, 168 male athletes (basketball, volleyball, handball, swimming, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, rugby and judo), 133 female non-athletes and 173 female athletes (basketball, volleyball, handball, swimming, gymnastics, track and field, softball, kendo, table tennis, skiing, modem rhythmic gymnastics, dance, kung fu, canoe, tennis and soft ball tennis). The results obtained on male subjects were as follows: The mean values of height and body weight for non-athletes were 170.2 cm and 59.7 Kg, respectively. The mean values of height and body weight for athletes except gymnasts and distance runners were greater than those for non-athletes. Athletes showed greater mean values of girth of chest than non-athletes. Athletes except basketball players, long distance runners and jumpers showed greater mean values of girth of upper arm than non-athletes. Athletes except long distance runners, jumpers and gymnasts showed greater mean values of girth of thigh than non-athletes. Athletes except judoka of heavy class showed smaller mean values of skinfold thickness than non-athletes and athletes showed smaller mean values of percentage of body fat, calculated by using the prediction formula from mean skinfold thickness, body surface area and body weight for standard young male Japanese than non-athletes. The results obtained on female subjects were as follows: The mean values of height and body weight for non-athletes were 156.5 cm and 51.5 Kg, respectively. Athletes except table tennis players, kung fu players and gymnasts showed greater mean values of height than non-athletes. Athletes except table tennis players and gymnasts showed greater mean values of body weight than non-athletes. The mean values of girth of upper arm for athletes except basketball players were greater than that for non-athletes. The mean values of girth of thigh for athletes were greater than that for non-athletes. Athletes except soft ball tennis players and swimmers showed smaller mean values of skinfold thickness than non-athletes. Athletes showed smaller mean value of percentage of body fat calculated by using prediction formula than non-athletes. In an attempt to compare the body composition and body shape among athletes of various kinds of sports and non-athletes, body weight and body fat content in standard measure, i.e., the ratio of difference between mean values of athlete groups and mean value of non-athletes to the standard deviations of mean value of non-athletes were plotted against height in standard measure. Physical characteristics of athletes could be expressed as the difference (R), in terms of absolute value, in the points representing the mean values of athletes and those of non-athletes and ratio of deviation (r) from normative line representing correlation of body weight or body fat content to height for non-athletes using family of iso-deviation line. Plotting R against r with family of lines of the same height was used to differenciate physical characteristics of athletes and to evaluate effect of physical training of various kinds on physical characteristics. Plotting of girth of upper arm and girth of thigh in standard measure against girth of chest in standard measure was used for the evaluation of the differences in body shape of athletes participating in various kinds of sports.
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  • Michiyoshi Ae, Kanji Shibukawa
    Type: Article
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 233-243
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 245-248
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 249-
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (31K)
  • Type: Cover
    1980 Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: December 01, 1980
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (31K)
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