Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 27 , Issue 1
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Keiji Umeno, Akira Tsujino
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 1-15
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The Present study was designed to elucidate whether or not the effectiveness of two methods of physical education teaching differ upon attitudes toward the instruction of physical activity courses among the lower grade children in elementary school. A class taught under a systematic sequence in whole-class learning (abbr. A-class) was compared against another class taught under a problem-solving method in sub-groups (abbr.B-class). Umeno Physical Education Inventory was used to measure attitudes, twice at the beginning of October and the end of December in 1978. During the period of attitude measurment, all the sounds of teaching and learning behavior on 3 lessons with the same teaching material were tape-recorded for the A- and the B-classes, respectively. Children were asked to present a composition on their impression of the class actiuities. The results obtained through the attitude measurment were discussed in relation to the analyses of the recorded tapes and the clildren's compositions. In the magnitudes of change in the score during the term, differences between in A-class and in B-class was not remark-able. However, the attitude score in the B-class was higher than it was in the A-class at the end of December. Especially, considerable increases were discernible in the score of three items in B-class, "deep impression on physical activities", "value of physical education" and "evaluation for the instruction of physical activity courses". From the results of analyzing teaching and learning behavior, it was suggested that the teacher's directions on skill development and movement patterns were emphasized more in the A-class as com-pared in the B-class. An intrinsic motivation of children in the B-Class was activated by teacher's timely and appropriate questions. It is suggested that the method of learning through problem solving might increase the attitude score toward the instruction of physical activity courses than did the method of systematic sequence and that the activities of instruction exerts a striking influence upon the attitude score in particular.
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  • Akira Nakagawa
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 17-26
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The primary purpose of this study is to verify the positive relation between the ability to recognize game situations and skill level of ball game players in the field experimental setting with the real game space. And the secondary purpose is to give some experimental data about decision-making of ball game players. In order to fulfill these purposes, static situations in rugby football were examined. The experimental task was to recognize the weak points in defensive disposition in game situations from the attacker's point of view. The number of weak points in one defensive disposition varied from zero to two. After subjects searched into each game situation during four seconds, they were required to answer the following questions : 1) Where is the weak point to attack? 2) How will you attack there? Three skill levels of players(1st=1st squard players in a university club; 2nd=2nd/3rd squard players in a university club; and B=beginners in a university rugby class) were chosen as subject groups. Each consisted of such positions like scrum half, stand off, center, and full back, two players in each position. The major results are summarized as follows: 1. The significant positive trend that the players of higher skill level displayed the better experimental result in terms of both correct responses (number of weak points recognized correctly) and errors of commission was obtained. This is a finding that supports some similar findings of the previous literature in field experimental situations. In order to confirm further this positive relation, similar field experimental study on dynamic game situations should be expected. 2. For number of attacking plays corresponding correctly to one weak point replied correctly (question 2), B was significantly inferior to 1st and 2nd, 1st and 2nd the same. As a result, B seemed to possess the inferior system of association between game situations and plays than the cases of 1st and 2nd, but the speed of decision-making and contents of plays selected are indispensable to determine the quality of ball game players. Hence, further study along the line should be expected.
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  • Hisashi Aoki, Katsumi Mita, Kyonosuke Yabe
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 27-34
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelation of dynamic force, velocity and power during a concentric contraction in human muscle. Voluntary maximum elbow extension was adopted as a concentric contraction in this study. A special electronic signal processor was designed for calculating dynamic force, instantaneous velocity and instantaneous power from the value of the acceleration at the wrist. The subjects used in this study were five healthy men. The results obtained were as follows; 1) The values of dynamic force, instantaneous velocity and instantaneous power during a concentric contraction changed separately every milli-second. It was confirmed that the constant-force contraction and the constant-velocity contraction were showed to be absent. 2) The dynamic force-velocity curve and the instantaneous power-velocity curve during a concentric contraction were recorded. It was became clear that the maximum dynamic force appeared in accordance with 30-45% of the maximum velocity and the maximum power appeared in accordance witn 80-85% of the maximum velocity.
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  • Shuichi Kunii, Yoshiro Fukuda, Kazuo Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki Fumino, Koi ...
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 35-46
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Many reports (2, 3, 7) indicate that the proper exercise training may have the effect of lowering blood pressure of the essential hypertensives. It is also reported that the blood pressure rise in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) can be repressed by the voluntary exercise. It is considered that if the blood pressure rise of Stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP) can be controlled by the voluntary exercise, an attack of cerebro-vascular lesions and encephalopathy can be prevented by the relations between hypertension and cerebro-vascular lesions. Male SHRSP, 39 in total, 7 weeks old were divided into the exercise group (20) and the control group (19). Each SHRSP of the exercise group was kept in the individual cage with a voluntarily revolving wheel, 1-meter in circumference. A SHRSP of the control group was kept individually in an ordinal cage. All of them were housed in a climate room : temperature : 22-24°C, humidity: 50-60%, for 6 months of duration after 7 weeks of age. Water and foods were provided adlibitum. Weekly running distances of the exercise group, amount of food consumption, body weight and blood pressure were measured, the symptoms of stroke or hypertensive encephalopathy of the rats of both group were observed periodically during the experiment duration. After 6 months, they were killed for pathological examinations, especially for the cerebro-vascular lesions. Though the systolic blood pressure of both groups rose progressively according to aging, the average value of systolic blood pressure of the exercise group were significantly higher than that of control group, after latter half period, contrary to our presumption. Eight of 20 rats in the exercise group died or sacrificed during the experimental period. Abnormal symptoms suggestive of stroke or hypertensive encephalopathy were observed in 7 rats of the exercise group, 2 of the control. Main lesions of the brain were consisted of old softening with gliosis and scattered fresh hemorrhages. The softening and fresh hemorrhages were often observed together in the same rat. There were some different foci of softenings; diffuse or small softenings, cystic one and so on. The familial commonness were observed in the blood pressure rise and the attack of the cerebral lesions. Following results were obtained; 1) The blood pressure rise and the attack of the cerebral lesions are deeply influenced by some inheritance factor. 2) During the prehypertensive phase, the voluntary exercise acts to suppress the blood pressure rise on SHRSP. 3) During the severe hypertensive phase, the voluntary exercise acts to accelerate the systolic blood pressure rise, and it may increase the risk of cerebral apolexy or the attack of encephalopathy on SHRSP.
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  • Mitsuru Saito, Kiyoshi Shimaoka
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 47-53
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of localized inactivity or immobilization on calf blood flow by comparing with the leg fixing plaster cast and free. Fourteen male patients (Experimental Group; EG) with accidental leg breaks and wearing plastic leg casts from two to four weeks, and twenty healthy males (Control Group; CG) were employed. The blood flow in both calves was determined simultaneously to the venous occlusive plethysmography at rest and after exercise which were voluntary dorsi-planter flection (VDPF) at one flex per second for three minutes and treadmill walking (TW, Flat: 50 to 80 m/min) for three minutes. In the experimental group, the subjects were performed VDPF exercise on 14 days after the cast was shelled, and TW exercise on 39 days after the cast was removed, respectively. The calf blood flow of active and inactive legs at rest was not different, while lower blood flow of calf of inactive after VDPF exercise was in the EG. After treadmill walking, calf blood flow of inactive leg was significantly higher than active. In control group, however, calf blood flow did not differ from right to left leg at rest and after exercise. These results suggest that inactive or disuses causes atrophy of muscle and ligament and secondary to the neurological disorder and contracting length of muscle was diminished at VDPF exercise. Furthermore, the higher reactive hyperaemia of fixed leg calf after walking is expected by a low muscle activity level i.e., inactivity or disuse, and may lead to a reduced oxidative enzyme activity in muscle tissues.
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  • Osamu Aoyagi, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Takaaki Asami, Eio Iida
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 55-63
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study was designed to predict the competitive aptitude of the excellent judoist with the morphological variables. Twenty-eight items, which were selected from the Standard Physical Fitness Test of Judoist developed by the Association for the Scientific Studies on Judo, Kodokan, were administered to 85 excellent judoists of none weight classification class, who participated in the All Japan Judo Championship Competition. And then, regression-discriminant analysis was applied so as to formulate the prediction of their performances. From the investigation in the accuracy of the formula obtained, the following results were obtained ; 1) With the morphological variables, competitive aptitude of judoist can be predicted at about 60 percent level precision. 2) The following variables were selected as the most useful predictors; Body weight(X_1), Thigh girth. L(X_2), Thigh girth. R(X_3), Skin fold fat(arm)(X_4), Wrist girth. R(X_5), Lower length. R (X_6). Then, index(Y) for predicting the competitive aptitude of judoist was devised as follows: Y^^^ =0.024X_1+0.023X_2-0.058X_3+0.024X_4-0.150X_5+0.027X_6+0.743, X_i(i=1, 2, .., 6) stands for the above mensioned variables, respectively.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 64-65
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 66-75
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 77-78
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 79-84
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 85-86
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 87-96
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (34K)
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