Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 27 , Issue 2
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages Cover5-
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages Cover6-
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages App3-
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Tatsuya Kasai
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 97-109
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Reaction time experiments have been often used to investigate variables affecting the motor output process by manipulating parameters of movements of certain body segments. The pattern of such movements may be expressed as a variable depending upon the motor output process; for example, electromyographic reaction times (EMG-RTs) of the biceps brachii muscle are reportedly different each other between the times when elbow is flexed and when the forarm is supinated. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the influence of the monitoring process on the motor output process of the brain measuring the EMG-RT of the right and the left biceps brachii muscles for the flexion and the supination in two upper limb position changes (neutral and facilitation positions) under two conditions ; with and without a warning signal (W+ and W - conditions). Two experiments were performed on fifty students at Kokushikan University, majoring physical education in the test of neutral position and forty student also at Kokushikan majoring physical education in the test of facilitation position, whose age varied from eighteen to twenty-two years. They were paid volunteers and right handed according to their self report. Major results may be summarized as follows: 1. The EMG-RTs under flexion and supination changed by the presence or the absence of a warning signal. Under the W+ condition, the EMG-RTs of both movement patterns were shorter than those of W-. 2. In every condition, the EMG-RTs under supination were always shorter than those under flexion. 3. There were significant regressions of EMG-RT difference between flexion and supination to one's EMG-RT under elbow flexion. This tendency was not affected by the changes of one's EMG-RT. 4. Under the W- condition, the significant regression of preferred hand was not observed in the neutral position. 5. In the biceps failitation position, the regression coefficient of the preferred hand was not equal to that of the nonpreferred hand under the W+ condition. From those results, it is suggested that there may be two motor output functions in the central nervous system, the first being the function which raises difference in the EMG-RTs between the two movement patterns, and the other, that the EMG-RT difference between the two movement patterns depends upon one's EMG-RT under elbow flexion. Moreover, the former is not influenced by excitement level,the brain dominance or the informations from the peripheral system, but the latter is influenced by excitement and the informations from the peripheral system. The present study suggests that there might be two different functions in the central nervous system in relation with motor output function, i.e., programming of the movement patterns, and modification of such movement patterns.
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  • Yasuyuki Yokoyama
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 111-122
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    To investigate the somatotype in the male and female physical education majors, the Sheldon's Trunk Index and Heath-Carter's Anthropometric Methods were applied to 25 male and 24 female college students. Comparisons of the trunk index and anthropometric methods of assessing physique types were made in the rating scores of the somatotype components. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The means of the three somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy) as assessed by the trunk index and anthropometric techniques for the male subjects were 2.8-4.9-2.9 and 2.4-5.0-3.1. 2) The means of the three somatotype components as assessed by the two methods for the female subjects were 3.6-4.7-2.5 and 4.5-4.5-2.0. 3) The differences between the means for the endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components as assessed by the two methods in the male subjects were not significant by application of the t ratio. 4) The difference between the endomorphic means as assessed by the two methods was significant at the 0.01 level in the female subjects. The higher mean was obtained by the anthropometric method. The mesomorphic and ectomorphic means were not significant between the two methods. 5) The correlations between the trunk index and anthropometric methods for the three somatotype components at two sexes were significant beyond the 0.05 level or the 0.01 level. 6) The endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy correlation coefficients between the two methods were 0.514, 0.446, 0.891 in the male subjects and 0.622, 0.554, 0.817 in the female subjects. 7) The distributions of the male physical education majors into Primary Endomorph, Mesomorph, Ectomorph, Endomesomorphy and Mid-type on the basis of the trunk index and anthropometric assessments were 0-16-1-0-8 and 0-14-1-1-9. The distributions of the female physical edncation majors were 3-10-0-1-10 and 4-5-0-5-10.
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  • Osamu Aoyagi, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 123-133
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was 1) to estimate a ratio scale index predicting the wins of judoist, and 2) to Predict the probability of wins in the All Japan Judo Championship Competition '81 with the results of some tournament games competed beforehand. One hundred and eighty excellent judoists who participated in the All Japan Judo Championship Competition and others from '75 to '80 were selected as the Subjects. And then, Bradley-Terry model was applied so as to prepare a prediction-formulus for the All Japan Judo Champion-ship Competition '81. A basic assumption that one dimensional scaling was constructed with following formula ; P_<ij> =P_<ik>P_<kj>/ (P_<ik>P_<kj>+P_<ki>P_<jk>), where P_<ij> stands for probability that i-th judoist with j-th, maximum likelihood method was applied to estimate a ratio scale index of judoist. And then, the probability of wins in the All Japan Judo Championship '81 was predicted by the computer simulation. Testing the validity of this ratio scale and prediction showed that this Bradley-Terry model was very efficient in its practical use.
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  • Tomoo Ryushi, Tetsuo Fukunaga, Masakatsu Kondo, Kiyoshi Shiono, Tetsur ...
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 135-142
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle fiber composition and muscle cross-sectional area on muscle strength in isokinetic contractions. Muscle biopsies were taken from the right vastus lateralis of 9 healthy untrained men. Using staining for myofibrillar adenosinetriphosphatase after preincubation at pH 4.3 and 4.6, muscle fibers were classified as ST, FTa, FTb, and FTc. But, FTc fibers were not calculated. Cross-sectional area of the leg extensor muscles were measured by ultrasonic measurements. Maximum strength for the leg extensor muscles were determined as peak torques with constant angular velocity using an isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex II, Lumex, New York). The peak torque values at various angular velocities (30°, 60°, 120°, and 180°/s) indicated significant positive correlation to %FTa fibers, % Area FTa fibers and Total area of FTa fibers. Other fiber types such as ST or FTb, however, were not related significantly to the peak torque values at all angular velocities. Significant positive correlation was observed between peak torque values per unit cross-sectional area of muscle (absolute strength) and % FTa fibers. These results suggest that in untrained men, %FTa fibers play more important role in producing high peak torques thah %FTb and % ST fibers, and that even if muscle cross-sectional areas are equal, muscles with high % FTa fibers can exert high isokinetic strength.
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  • Kimihiro Inomata, Tamotsu Nishida, Atsumi Katsube, Eriko Seno
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 143-152
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Generally, the method by observing a model or rehearsing a skill with imagery is often regarded as an effective technique in the initial stage of acquiring a motor skill. It was the purpose of the present study to determine the effects of video-tape replay (VTR) of model skills and image rehearsal (IR) on the early stage of acquiring a pursuit rotor skill, in terms of performance, electric myographic (EMG) and respiratory measurements. Concerning the VTR, the camera angle for the model, 0 degrees (subjective angle, VTRS) or 180 degrees (objective angle, VTRO), was specifically varied as an important experimental variable. Sixty male undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental treatment groups. The four groups were as follows: VTRS-observing the model skill via VTR at subjective angle ; VTRO-observing the model via VTR at objective angle ; IR-rehearsing a skill with imagery; and control group (CON)-observing a regular TV program via VTR. These four experimental treatments were administered between the original learning phases and the post-test phases. The original learning phases on pursuit rotor task consisted of fifteen 30 sec-trials with 15 sec-intertrial rests and the post-tests were three 30 sec-trials with 15 sec-intertrial rests. The four groups were first given fifteen 30 sec-trials with 15sec-intertrial rests on pursuit rotor task. Immediately following the pre-training, VTRS and VTRO were asked to observe and image the model skill via VTR under the same trial conditions of the pre-training. IR was received image rehearsal training under the same trial condition of the pre-training, while the control was required to observe the regular TV program via VTR. During this experimental treatment period, EMG and resperatory responses were recorded for each subject, respectively. After that, all subjects were administered three post-test trials (30 sec-trials with 15 intertrial rests) on pursuit rotor task again. As the performance measures, time on target scores on pursuit rotor task were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance which detected no significant difference (P>.05) for the mean post test scores among the four groups. Concerning EMG, the patterns of EMG were classified into four typical groups, namely tonic type, regular change type, irregular change type, and non-visible change type. Both VTRO and VTRS showed the most frequencies for the tonic type, and IR did for the regular change type, while CON did for the irregular change type. These frequencies of the four EMG patterns on musculi flexor carpi radialis and musculi deltoideus were significantly different (P<.05) among the four groups. Furthermore, coefficients of variation (CV) for respiratory frequencies were analyzed. The average of CV were significantly different (P<.01) between rest and image training periods for VTRO and VTRS, but not for IR. IR showed relatively higher CV during image training periods than VTRO or VTRS.
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  • Kohji Takenaka
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 153-160
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to clarify the heart period (HP) changes and the forearm electromyogam (EMG) changes during the fixed (F) and the variable (V) foreperiods of the reaction time (RT) task. Six undergraduate male students of a university were tested under both conditions. In condition F, the mean HP changes showed three components (deceleration-acceleration-deceleration) and the mean EMG changes increased gradually in each foreperiod (4 ,8 and 12 sec) : In condition V, they showed such a wave form corresponding to three foreperiod (4, 8 and 12 sec). The analysis of RTs revealed that in condition F the RTs were significantly faster than those in condition V, and that in condition V the RTs. were faster as the foreperiod increased in length. The mean HP decelerations at the termination of foreperiods were not significantly correlated with the RTs in condition V, but were significantly correlated in condition F (4 and 8 sec). The RTs and the changes observed in the mean. HP and EMG in condition V were interpreted as changes of attentional level produced by the temporal uncertainty and by the motor preparation during foreperiods.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 161-162
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 163-165
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 167-172
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages App4-
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (53K)
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages Cover7-
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (26K)
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages Cover8-
    Published: September 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (26K)
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