Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 27 , Issue 3
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages App5-
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Masahiro Inagaki
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 173-185
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to analize the Gaulhofer's system of subject matters in physical education (System des Schulturnens) from the historical standpoint of physical education. In order to investigate the characteristics of his system, the ideas of physical education reform movement (Turnerneuerungsbewegung) and the trends of the studies on physical education from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century are analized, and then the relationships between these factors and his system are discussed. The main findings are as follows. A lot of the historical heritages of subject matters in physical education were succeeded by his system. Especially, l) hiking (Wandern) developed in youth movement (Jugendbewegung) was evaluated as a valuable material in performance exercises (Leistungsubungen) and adopted as a group of subject matters in his system, 2) various sports, which had occupied the great part of performance exercises, were taken over from sports movement (Sportsbewegung) and play movement (Spielbewegung) and were placed as the central part of the system, 3) corrective exercises (Ausgleichsubungen) developed in north gymnastics movement (Nordische Gymnastikbewegung) were improved and placed in the system, 4) from new gymnastics movement (Neue Gymnastikbewegung), dance and dancing play were succeeded as art movements (Bewegungskunste) and 5) apparatus gymnastics (Geratturnen) developed in German turn movement (Deutsche Turnbewegung) were also succeeded as one of art movements. The originality of Gaulhofer's system was found in the following three aspects. 1) The physical movements were thoroughly considered from the viewpoint of biologicalanthropology, 2) the concept of functional physical movement was defined and the idea of the science of functional physical movement (Funktionelle Bewegungslehre) was brought into the classification of physical movements and finally, 3) in classifying the physical movement materials, both the viewpoint of biological-anthropology and that of the science of functional physical movement were harmoniously integrated.
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  • Masanobu Ito
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 187-195
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of symbolic coding strategy and covert rehearsal in terms of each coding strategy on the retention of isometric force information. The dependent variable was the absolute error made by 120 male undergraduate students in attempting to reproduce a target force (15 kg) during immediate (5 sec. ) and delayed (30 sec. and 180sec. ) recall trials following thirty learning trials. Experiment 1 examined the effects of kinesthetic coding strategy (KC) and elaborative coding strategy (EC), and covert rehearsal, from the view point of levels of information processing model by Craik and Lockhart. Experiment 2 was a partial replication of Experiment 1, and examined the effects of kinesthetic coding strategy under either visual masking or not, and covert rehearsal in terms of either kinesthetic imagery or kinesthetic and visual imagery. The results are summarised as follows: 1) The performance of EC condition was significantly superior to that of KC condition in two delayed recall tests. 2) The effect of covert rehearsal was not found on the retention of isometric force information.
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  • Koki Kudo
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 197-205
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Former study (Kudo, 1980) has revealed with the aid of the preferred arm positioning task that visual information dominates kinesthetic information and that the VD score should be devised to indicate to what degree vision dominates kinesthesis. This study attempts to examine the VD score from several points of view. First, the consistency among the individual differences in the VD score was probed by the test-retest method. The scores for 42 subjects were measured twice at a week's test interval, and the coefficient of correlation among them was computed. As a result, the significant and closer correlation (r=0.736) was obtained, and it was inferred that there might be the consistency among the individual differences in the VD score. Secondly, the high and low VD score groups were compared with each other as to the performance of the motor tasks. In this case the mirror tracing task and the circle drawing task were used. It was hypothesised that the low VD score group would perform better than the high VD score group, because the attention to kinesthesis might bring forth better performance in these tasks than that to vision. The results obtained supported this hypothesis. Thirdly, the VD scores of athletes were compared with those of non-participants. Athletes who had participated in ball games such as volleyball, basketball and soccer, did not score differently from non-participants, while those who had participated in gymnastics or rythmic sports gymnastics made a lower score than non-participants. These results suggest that the continual attention to bodily sense in training produces affection, lowering the visual dominance which is common in perceptual tendency. Lastly, the high and low VD score groups were compared with each other in terms of the perceptual style suggested by Witkin et al (1974), and contrary to the hypothesis, there were no differences between the two groups in the Rod and Frame Test and the Embedded Figures Test. These results were discussed in relation to the other results obtained in this study.
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  • Masanobu Araki, Haruo Sakuma
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 207-215
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    A series of two experiments assessed the effect of EMG biofeedback on the perceptual-motor coordination process in continuous motor task. In the experiment 1, in order to investigate the effect of EMG biofeedback, compensatory tracking was used. In the experiment, for evaluation of the biofeedback, step wave methool was used while the changing margin being 1 V to 2 V. Twenty seven subjects were randamly assinged into three condition groups, i. e., visual feedback condition group, visual + auditory feedback condition group and visual + EMG biofeedback condition group. In order to investegate the state of motor learning, the recorded integrated error was measured. In the experiment 2, in order to compare the first half term of EMG biofeedback training with the latter half term of EMG biofeedback training, pursuit tracking method was used. In non-EMG biofeedback condition, the sine wave target, method was used and its four frequences ranging from 0.102 Hz to 0.503 Hz transfer function. In EMG biofeedback training condition, the step wave target, method was used while the margin ranging from 1 V to 2 V. Twenty four subjects were randamly assinged into three condition groups, i.e., group-1 (the latter half term of EMG biofeedback training), group-2 (the first half term of EMG biofeedback training), group-3 (non-EMG biofeedback training). In order to investegate the state of motor learning, the recorded integrated error was measured, furthermore a real time correlater and fourior transform apparatus were employed to obtain power density spectra in the frequency domain of target, and to obtain crosspower density spectra between target and response. These data were expressed on a error power spectra. The results were as follows : 1) significant decrease in integrated error values was showed by visual + EMG biofeedback condition group and visual + auditory feedback condition group; 2) after the EMG biofeedback was excluded, the effect of the EMG biofeedback remained; and 3) the application of EMG biofeedback was effective in the latter term better than the previous term.
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  • Shoko Kawabe, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 217-227
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study was designed to investigate the correction of error reaction which was caused by the mismatch between the subject's anticipation to a forthcoming stimulus and the stimulus actually presented. The reaction times (latency of EMG : ET, latency of force-change : MT1, and latency of movement initiation : MT2) and MT1 minus ET (CT) were measured by using regularly alternating serial light stimuli (right-left). At an unforeseen trial, the same lamp as an immediately preceding trial was turned on consecutively to belie the subject's anticipation for the stimulus appearance. The second of the two consecutive stimuli was termed "feinting stimulus." The time lag from the error EMG onset to the correct EMG onset was measured as the "switching time (ST)". The results obtained are as follows: 1) The reaction times for the regularly alternating stimuli shortened in comparison with simple reaction times, indicating the anticipation for the stimulus presentation was established within the subject's mind. 2) The error reaction appreared in 22.8% of all trials with the feinting stimuli. Correct reaction for the feinting stimulus was delayed accordingly as the intensity of error reaction increased. 3) The switching tine increased according to the intensity of error reaction. When error reaction was so weak that only EMG appeared, switching time was about 100 ms. For the intense error reaction, it reached 200 ms or more. 4) The switching time was divided into two phases: one was the duration of the error EMG (P1) and the other was the silent period between error EMG vanishment and correct EMG appearance (P2). 5) P1 clearly increased in proportion to the intensity on error reaction. However, P2 ranged between 40 and 120 ms, showed no clear relation to the intensity of error reaction. 6) Even when no error reaction appeared for the feinting stimulus, the reaction times were also lengthened as compared with the reaction for the stimulus immediately before the feinting stimulus. From these results; it can be concluded that when the error reaction was induced by false anticipation for the forthcoming stimulus, at least 100 to 200 ms is necessary for correcting the error command when the error appears as the external phenomenon and at least 50 ms is necessary even when the error does not appear as external phenomenon.
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  • Yoshio Ohyabu, Tadashi Wada
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 229-237
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In this study, cardiac silhouette of 74 men athletes and 49 women athletes belonging to senior high schools with 3-6 years' experience of training were compared with those of 29 non-athletes as controls. Radiography for cardiac silhouette was taken for men and women athletes of long distance, cross country ski, basketball, soccer, rugby, sumo, judo, volley ball, hand ball, heavy gymnastics and for non-athletes in the dorso-ventral and the lateral directions with the distance of 2.0 meters between the bulb and the film. The area of cardiac silhouette was measured with a planimeter and its volume was computed by application of Rohrer- Kahlstrof formula. Measurements of heart rate were made during submaximal exercise and recovery phase. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The mean heart volume calculated from roentgenograms of the men athletes was 996.0 ml (sumo), 916.5 ml (basket ball), 906.8 ml (cross country ski), 801.9 ml (long distance),752.6 (rugby), 717.5 ml (judo), 713. 9 ml (soccer), 586.5 ml (non-athletes) and for the women athletes it was 676.1 ml (volley ball), 650.4 ml (cross country ski), 615.0 ml (hand ball), 569.8 ml (basket ball), 504.3 ml (heavy gymnastics) and 454.4 ml (non-athletes), respectively. 2) The average of the heart volume per kilogram body weight for the men athletes was 15.4 ml・kg^<-1> (long distance), 14.2 ml・kg^<-1> (cross country ski), 12.6 ml・kg^<-1> (basket ball), 11.6 ml・kg^<-1>(soccer), 11.5ml・kg^<-1> (rugby), 10.7ml・kg^<-1> (sumo), 10.3 ml・kg^<-1> (non-athletes), 9. 6 ml・kg^<-1> (judo) and for the women athletes it was 13.0 ml・kg^<-1> (cross country ski), 11. 5 ml・kg^<-1> (volley ball), 10.7 ml・kg^<-1> (hand ball), 10.6 ml・kg^<-1> (heavy gymnastics), 9.9 ml・kg^<-1> (basket ball) and 8.5 ml・kg^<-1> (non-athletes), respectively. 3) The heart volume had significantly high correlations to body weight with the coefficient of r=0.571 (long distance, cross country ski, p<0.05), r=0.569 (ball games, p<0.001), r=0.764(sumo, judo, p<0.001), r=0.643 (non-athletes, p<0.01) in men and r=0.663 (cross country ski, p<0.05), r=0.587 (ball games, p<0.001), r=0.888 (non-athletes, p<0.001) in women, respectively. 4) Regarding physical fitness index, correlation coefficient with the heart volume per kilogram body weight was r=0.524 (p<0.001) in men and r=0.401 (p<0.01) in women. 5) The above-mentioned findings seem to suggest that the heart volume had significantly related with body weight and endurance capacity and, the fact that. the heart volume of the adult endurance athletes is larger than that of the ordinary men was also recognized in the senior high school boys and girls.
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  • Morio Itoh, Yoshiro Hatano
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 239-246
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Upon reviewing the findings in the related preceding studies, a hypothetical cause-result model on formation of "disliking attitude against physical education" was proposed. Examination of the validity of this model was then attempted by applying the statistical technique developed by Goodman. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 613 college students, and 7 items out of it's 30 question items on attitude-opinion about school physical education were applied to the model. The processed statistical treatment revealed that the hypothetical model was supportable and the Goodman's technique was valid for examination of the cause-result relationship, like the model used in this study.
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  • Shuji Yamashita, Nobuhiko Tada
    Type: Article
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 247-257
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 259-262
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 263-
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages 264-269
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages App6-
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (30K)
  • Type: Cover
    1982 Volume 27 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: December 01, 1982
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (30K)
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