Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 27 , Issue 4
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages App7-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Kiichi Otagiri
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 271-279
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to explain the conceptional transition of sports in modern history. For this purpose, this paper intends to study the meanings of the term " sport " and the meanings of the related terms such as " game, " " amusement, " " pastime, " " recreation " and so on. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the use of the term " sport " is divided into three groups by its genealogical meanings of the following three historical ages. (1) The early formative age of the conception (15th and 18th centuries). The conception of this age is represented by the following words ; " pleasant pastime, " " frolicsome merriment, " and " active exercise in the open air. " (2) The first age of the conceptional expansion and specialization (17th and 18th centuries). The conception of this age is to be known by the meanings of the words " field-sport, " and " gamble and spectacle. " (3) The second age of the conceptional expanasion and specialization (19th century). The conception of this age is to be known by the meaning of the words " athletic sports, " including the conception in (2). It is obvious that the conceptional transition of the term " sport " reflects such demands of the times as the ethical control of valgarness, the attention to the cultural usefulness of play, the rationalization of physical exercise and so on. This is similar to the cases of " amusement, '' " pastime " and " recreation." And it may be considered that the term " sport " has taken almost all the meanings of the term " game, " that have been attached to it. The above-mentioned use of the term " sport " is confirmed in the history of English sports. And this fact seems to be confirmed in the historical progress of American sports, which is devided into two periods, the age before the Civil War and that after the Civil War. It is considered that the colonial sports as folk practises, for instance, are rooted in pleasant pastime, frolicsome merriment and active exercise in the open air of the " early formative age. " And the traditional sports of the newly-risen middle class, whose inclination to sports has been directed by their thirst for English culture, seem to correspond to field-sport and gamble and spectacle of the " first age of the conceptional expansion and specialization. " It goes without saying that the athletic character has come to be emphasized after the Civil War. This social trend toward athleticism seems to have reference to the characteristics of the sports of the " second age of the conceptional expansion and specialization. "
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  • Komei Hattori
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 281-285
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Morphological changes of median profile of the anterior wall of body trunk during full inhalation and exhalation movements and 3 positions upon shoulder joint movement were analysed on male students by use of moire^^' contourography. The coordinate points of intersection of contour stripes created by moire^^' method and median line provided as the input date for statistical analysis which was processed by using a computer. The anterior wall length, 2 indices and 3 angle items were calculated to express the profile change of the respective part of the body quantitatively. The results are summalized as follows: 1) The largest mean values in the anterior wall length is shown at the abducted position of shoulder, (180°). 2) The ratios of the thoracic length to the anterior wall length at the abducted position of shoulder (180°) are significantly small compared with the one at the standing position. 3) The anterior walls tend to protrude at the fully inhaled position and the abducted position of shoulder(180°) as presented in the trunk arc indices. 4) The sternal part leans back notably at the fully inhaled position and the abducted position of shoulder (180°), meanwhile the fully exhaled position and abducted position of shoulder (90°) are more perpendicular than the standing position. 5) The positions followed by the thorax and shoulder movements show larder mean values then the standing position in the abdominal inclination. 6) The fully inhaled, shoulder abducted (180°) and shoulder elevated positions have the smaller mean values then the standing position in the anterior wall angle, meanwhile the fully exhaled position shows larger mean values then the standing position in the same item.
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  • Shinichi Demura, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 287-299
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study was designed to examine the sexual difference of the factorial structure of swimming ability in well-trained junior high school swimmers. Factor analytic technique was applied to each correlation matrix of boys and girls, which consisted of a total of 66 selected variables. The main results were as follows; 1) It was inferred that the factorial structures of both swimming abilities were composed of many common factors. The differentiation in the domain of physique and static strength for girls seemed to advance more rapidily as compared to that for boys, while the domain of flexibility for boys differentiated to a greater extent. 2) From the examination of communality, it was inferred that the domains of swimming skill, physique, and cardio-respiratory functions showed high relationships with other ability domains in both sexes. Relationships of elementary swimming skills with other domains were higher in girls, while in boys higher relationships were observed between static strength and other domains. 3) It was inferred that, in boys, six factors, i.e., swimming speed skill, body bulk and static strength, agility of total body, static balance, ankle flexibility, and linearity of physique, developed in accordance with the advance in age, but, in girls, only two factors of body bulk and static strength showed developmental trend with age. 4) For boys, the development of swimming speed skill seemed to be larger than that of body bulk and static strength in the 7th grade, while the former seemed to be inferior to the growth of linearity of physique in the 7 th and 8 th grades. Furthermore, it was suggested that swimming speed skill developed as accompanied by the growth of linearity of physique from the 7 th to 8 th grade, and then, the development of body bulk and static strength from the 8 th to 9 th grade.
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  • Katsuhiko Kusano, Kyonosuke Yabe
    Type: Article
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 301-308
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The maximum oxygen intake (V^^.O_2 max) and endurance running time (1500m run) of the mentally retardeds were compared with those of nonretarded children. The subjects were 21 mentally retarded boys, aged 12 and 13 years, ranging in IQ scored from 25 to 55, and 27 nonretarded boys with comparative age range. The V^^.O2 max was measured by the bicycle ergometer method. Among the retarded subjects, 14 boys could not reach the heart rate level of 180 beats/min (Retarded B), though the other seven retardeds (Retarded A) and all the nonretardeds were able to reach this level. The maximum heart rate level of the nonretardeds, the Retarded A and the Retarded B were 191, 187 and 151 beats/min, respectively. The Retarded A showed significantly lower working capacities than the nonretarded group. Their V^^.O_2 max/wt was 40.1 ml/min/kg, which was 83.1% of that for the nonretarded. The Retarded B showed much smaller endurance capacity. They had a mean peak V^^.O_2/wt of 29.9ml/min/kg, which was 60.8% of that for the nonretarded. The 1500m run performance of the nonretardeds, the Retarded A and the Retarded B were 370, 477 and 842 sec, respectively. One of the characteristics specific to the retardeds' endurance was observed in V^^.O_2max/wt-1500m run record relationship. The performance level of 1500m run in the retarded group was still lower when the comparison was made in relation to their V^^.O_2max/wt (or Peak V^^.O_2/wt) levels; i.e., the ratio of 1500m record to V^^.O_2max/wt (or Peak V^^.O_2/wt) of the Retarded A and the Retarded B were 11.7 and 28.2, respectively, in compatrison to 7.52 for the nonretarded. The subjects of Retarded B participated in 10 minutes endurance training three times a week. During the three months of training, their maximum heart rate increased significantly from a mean of 151 beats/min to 165 beats/min, and five subjects reached the heart rate level of 180 beats/min. With this change, endurance capacity also improved, the Peak V^^.O_2 and 1500m record after training reached 33.4ml/min/kg and 612 sec, respectively. The ratio of 1500m run to Peak V^^.O_2/wt, therefore, decreased to 18.2. Regression equations of 1500m run record to Peak V^^.O_2/wt were. 1500m record=1586.03-24.85 (Peak V^^.O_2/wt) for pre-training, 1500m record=1167.76-16.64 (Peak V^^.O_2/wt) for post-training. The results indicated that, within this materials and training conditions, relatively greater improvement was shown in endurance time rather than that in Peak V^^.O_2. This tendency was especially conspicuous in the subjects with smaller endurance capacity at the initial level. The characteristics of these results were discussed in relation to psychological tolerance to the exercise.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 309-310
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 311-344
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 345-360
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages 361-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages App8-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages Toc1-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages App9-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages Cover15-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (18K)
  • Type: Cover
    1983 Volume 27 Issue 4 Pages Cover16-
    Published: March 01, 1983
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (18K)
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