In the soviet Union, since the 1960's, advancement of the Socialist society into a higher Stage, and the progress made in the field of scientific and technological revolution have been quite significant. As the result of such changes in the society, the objective of physical culture is now defined. While physical culture had been regarded as same concept as physical education before, the concept of physical culture and its position in accordance with the development of physical education and sports have been pursued. In this study, upon reviewing literature on physical culture in the present day Soviet Union, three philosophical schools behind have been hypothetically pointed out. Problems interrelated each other among these schools have further discussed.
The purpose of this study is to consider the meaning of Rousseau's theory of physical education by examining how his recognition on the history and the urgent problems of the body affected his view of the body. Rousseau recognized the process of civilized society formation in the legislation of "private ownership system" caused by the dependent relation with others which had been resulted from the development of "perfectibilite." On the basis of such historical recognition he grasped the man as being destroyed his "free body" by the interdependence. It was the problem of "physical retrogression." This schema acquired greater importance in the age of "crisis and revolution." Ce fastueux imbecile qui ne sait point user de lui-meme et ne met son etre que dans ce qui est etranger a lui(the luxurious imbecile who doesn't know the use of himself and leaves himself to others) can't live any more in the age of change. To live in such an age,man needs to have acts "whenever and any where." The body such conceived was essentially different from the image of man living in "the prosperity of the comming commercial society" which "the theory of the civil physical education" had seeked for. Though the image of the body Rousseau wished for was set up as a modernproblem, it had "universal" nature transcendent of the age.
Reproducibility of aerobic power was investigated on the basis of 382 measurements of aerobic power for 54 boys and 45 girls aged 5 and 6 years. Each subject ran about 360m on the ground with warming up and maximal effort for last one minute. Expired gas was collected into a Douglas bag during the last one minute of running. Each Douglas bag was carried by one of the investigators who ran along the subject. Expired gas was analyzed using Respilyzer BM l0 (Fukuda Sangyo Co.) which was calibrated frequently by a micro-Scholander apparatus. Heart rate was recorded continuously using telemetry system during running. Two series of measurement of aerobic power were carried out in October, 1981 (Experiment l) and in March,1982 (Experiment 2) on the same subjects. Subjects ran twice with an interval of one or two days in each experiment. The following results were obtained in the present study. 1. The mean values of aerobic power in Exp. 1 were 0.888 1/min and 0. 925 1/min for boys of 5.95 years old, and 0.890 1/min and 0.948 for girls of 5.94 years old. The values in Exp. 2were 0.997 1/min and 0.985 1/min for boys of 6.43 years old, and 0.971 1/min and 0.948 1/min for girls of 6.48 years old. Correlation coefficients between first and second measurements in aerobic power were 0.705 (p<0.001) and 0.582 (p<0.001) for boys and girs in Exp.1,and 0.694 (p<0.001) and 0.781 (p<0.001) for boys and girls in Exp.2, respectively. Mean va1ues of individual difference between first and second measurements in aerobic power were 11.3% for boys and 12.0% for girls in Exp. l and 8.9% for boys and 7.8% for girls in Exp. 2,respectively. It might be concluded from these values that reproducibility of aerobic power were in an acceptable level of confidence. 2. The corelations between first and second measurements in ventilation ranged from 0.708 to 0.749 for boys and girls. Those in maximum heart rate were 0.778 for boys and 0.807 for girls .3. There was no significant reproducibility in respiratory exchange ratio (R.). It seems that respiratory exchange ratio is not suitable for a criterion of aerobic power.
Body fat lessens underwater body weight and may offer an advantage for swimming performance. The present study was undertaken to measure separately V0_2 for buoyancy and that for propulsion during swimming in the swimming flume and to elucidate the advantage of lower underwater body weight in female. Three male swimmers and three female swimmers participated as the subjects. VO_2 was measured during free style swimming at a constant speed of 0.6,0.8 and l.0m/sec.Underwater weight was increased stepwisely by loading an extra-weight around the subject's waist or decreased by suspending a weight which pulls the waist upward via a wire and pulleies. VO_2 at a given speed depended proportionally on the underwater weight. VO_2 for propu1sion was estimated by subtracting resting V0_2 from the intercept on the ordinate, and V0_2 for buoyancy was calculated from the slope.1) VO_2 for buoyancy was independent of swimming speed and the average value for female swimmers was much smaller than that for male swimmers (352±140m1/min for male, 186±83m1/min for female). This difference in VO_2 for buoyancy depended largely on the difference in underwater weight as the calculated values of VO_2 for buoyancy per kg of underwater weight revealed much smaller difference between sexes (117±46m1/min for male, 91±36m1/min for female).2) VO_2 for propulsion increased exponentially with increasing speed. The increasing rate was larger in female than in male. This is probably because of relative inferiority of swimming ability in the female group in this study.3) The rate of propulsion VO_2 to total VO_2 during swimming was larger in female than in male. This represents the advantage of lower underwater weight in female for swimming. This result offers the probable explanation for the discrepancy which exists in male-female ratio of the world records between swimming and running.
Few studies have been made on mechanisms of race walking from the biomechanical points of view. In the present study the mechanism of prope1ling in race walking was examined by comparing electromyogram activities of race walkers observed in 30m race walking with those of normal adults observed in 30m natural walking. Electromyogams were recorded from ten muscles of lower limb, two shou1der muscles and two trunk muscles with surface electrodes, 5mm in diameter, using 25m recording wires. Both walkings were done on the ordinary levelground. Subjects were five male race walkers and two normal adults. It was found that the hip joint was adducted at the beginning of the stance phase, and then abducted and strongly extended simultaneously at the later period of the stance phase in race walking while neither of these occurred in natural walking. This finding suggests that propelling of race walking is attributable dominantly to the abduction and extention of hip joint followed by its adduction. The adduction would be effective in absorbing the shock occurring when the foot touched the ground. It was pointed out that the mechanism of "hip adduction and hip abduction-extension" constitute the characteristic pelvis movements so conspicuously observed in race walking.
The aim of study is to describe the situations in the fulfillment on needs of users in community sports from various points of view, to define the caharacteristics of the situations, and to gain basic data of managements of athletic facilities.In the course of this study, we made a research on users of athletic facilities in Kashima-machi and Aso-machi, Ibaraki-ken. The following can be pointed out as the results of our researches: 1) Individual motives of athletes were satisfied by fulfilling their needs for community sports. 2) Some persons satisfied their which they had after taking part in community sports, though they had not had any motives before. 3) Four factors were specified by means of factorization analysis, and the features of these factors were described when differences in age, kinds of sports , and athletic facilities were taken into consideration.
This study was attempted to investigate the cohort difference in physical growth and development of senior high school boys and girls. Those who enrolled in K senior high school of T city as freshmen from 1970 through 1974 were tested longitudinally for three years up to their graduation with 12 sports test items and 4 physique items. Thus, five of longitudinal deta respectively for the boys and girls were obtained representing the classes enrolled in each year from 1970 through 1974. Sample size of each year was not always equal, but total sizes were 892 for boys and 1005 for girls. The two-way analysis of variance was utilized for the quantitative evaluation of the cohort differences in physical growth and development, and furthermore, the growth and development patterns expressed qualitatively as increase, unchange and decrease were compared in each growth and developmental attribute between different enrollment years. Then, the following results were obtained. 1) No significant differences were found in all items of boys and girls between different enrollment years and grade. 2) In boys, of four items which showed complete agreement in their growth and developmental patterns between different enrollment years, three; e. g. side steo, trunk extension and 50m dash, showed an increasing tendency during three-years of senior high school. In girls, however, such complete agreement of growth and development pattern as showed in boys was not found. 3) Back strength, standing height, 1,500m endurance run in boys, and standing height, body weight, trunk flexion and 50m dash in girls showed comparatively high degree of agreement in their growth and deve1opmental patterns between different enrollment years. 4) It was suggested that side step, trunk extension. trunk flexion and 50m dash showed no difference in their growth and developmental pattern that were expressed qualitative1y, but cohort difference should be taken into consideration to analyze the physical growth and development quantitatively.