Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 29 , Issue 1
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Sadamitsu Arai
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 1-13
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present author have developed an analytical model of sport space as an ideal type which consists of two symbolic terms "inside of the court" and "outside of the court". Inside of the court is such space as a game or practice where the members of a group are in high tension mood, while outside of the court is located between inside of the court and real society, and the members are filled with the mood of relaxation there. The purpose of this paper is to find out the configurations of sport space the members of a sport group perceive and to determine the relations between their perceptions of sport space and their personal and behavioral attributes such as the grade of school, sex, sport ability, motivation for sport group activities etc.. 4000 sport group members were sampled from universities, senior high schools and junior high schools in Hiroshima Prefecture, and 3010 answers were obtained. Main findings are as follows: 1) The proportions of subjects who wish severity inside the court and relax outside the court and the subjects who feel severity inside the court and relax outside the court increase as the grade of school advances from junior high school to university. 2) 76.8% of the subjects wish severity inside the court and relaxation outside the court. In reality, however, 41.7% of the subjects feel relaxation both inside and outside the court, and 38.5% of them feel severity inside the court and relaxation outside the court. 3) 40.9% out of 76.8% of the subjects who wish severity inside the court and relaxation outside the court perceive their reality as such (type A). 4) The subjects of type A tend to feel their sport activities more enjoyable, to be motivated more strongly for continuing their group activities, and to estimate their groups more liberated than the subjects who belong to the other types (type B: Subjects who wish severity or relaxation both inside and outside the court and perceive their reality as such. type C: Subjects who wish severity inside the court and relaxation outside the court but in reality they feel relaxation both inside and outside the court. type D: Subjects who perceive other types of space composition). 5) It was suggested that sport groups which possess both of two contrasting spaces i.e. severe inside of the court and relaxed outside of the court tend to show higher levels in terms of group performance and group maintenance.
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  • Tamotsu Nishida
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 15-23
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study was attempted to test the following hypotheses. Those who have high need for achievement (High n Ach group) would show a greater learning effect on motor skill tasks than those who have low need for achievement (Low n Ach group). In the process of motor skill learning, the High n Ach group would have higher task motivation, more strategies, and clearer imagery than the Low n Ach group. The High (n=15) and Low (n=15) n Ach groups were screened from a total sample of 162 male undergraduate students on the basis of their responses to the Mehrabian Measure of Achieving Tendency. A rotary pursuit tracking was employed as a motor learning task. For the training session, the subjects were given 50 30-sec. trials with 15~sec. intertrial rests. Following 5 min. rest, 5 trials were treated as the test session with the same procedure of the training session. The task motivation questionnaire, the checklist of strategy and the vividness test of imagery for this task were administered in the process of motor skill learning. In comparison with the Low n Ach group, the High n Ach group showed significantly higher scores on the time on target, the task motivation questionnaire and the vividness test of kinesthetic imagery. These results supported the hypotheses in this study. Therefore, it was concluded that the High n Ach group had a greater learning effect on the motor skill task than the Low n Ach group, and the superiority for the High n Ach group could have resulted from the strong task motivation at this task. However, there were no distinct differences between the two groups concerning the number of strategies. Further investigations into this problem must be conducted in consideration of behavioral and cognitive aspects of the learning strategy.
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  • Shinichi Demura, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Kiyoji Tanaka
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 25-34
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of the present study was to compare four sub-domains of physical fitness (physique, muscular strength, flexibility, and neuromuscular function) among different swimming strokes of highly skilled swimmers trained more than five years. One hundred and forty swimmers (20.2t2.9 yr) were categorized into six groups: sprint crawl (CR1), breast stroke (BR), back stroke (BA), butterfly stroke (BT), individual medley (IM), and long distance crawl (CR2). The Principal Factor Analysis was applied to four different correlation matrices, each consisting of various variables that represent any one of the physique, muscular strength, flexibility, and neuromuscular function sub-domains. The factor analysis, after rotation of the Normal Varimax Criterion procedure, resulted in the fol1owing inferences : 1) In a sub-domain of physique, three extracted factors were interpreted as subcutaneous fat, body linearity, and body bulk. Body linearity was found significantly superior in CR1 group to CR2 and BR groups, and in BA and IM groups to CR2 group. Body bulk was significantly greater in IM,BT, and CR1 groups as compared with BR and BA group. 2) Six factors (interpreted as arm strength, dynamic strength of arm-shoulder girdle and 1eg, static strength of abdomen, grip strength, strength of arm-shoulder girdle and explosive strength of leg, and dynamic strength abdomen) were extracted in a sub-domain of muscular strength. However, there were no distinct differences in any of the six factors between the groups. 3) Also in a sub-domain of flexibility, six factors were extracted and interpreted as trunk rotation, lateral trunk flexion, shoulder flexibility, ankle extension, ankle flexion, and trunk forward and backward flexibility. BT group as compared with CR1, CR2, and BR groups, and IM group as compared with CR2 and BR groups were found to possess significantly greater trunk rotation. Ankle extension appeared significantly superior in BA group to the other groups, and in BT group to BR, CR1 , and CR2 groups. 4) Limbs agility, trunk agility, dynamic balance, static balance, and whole body agility were five interpreted factors in a sub-domain of neuromuscular function. No distinct differences existed in any of these factors between the groups.
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  • Eio Iida, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Osamu Aoyagi, Masayuki Takeuchi, Hideyuk ...
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 35-42
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purposes of this study were l) to clarify the factorial structure of fundamental physical fitness, and 2) to establish test batteries of fundamental physical fitness for college judoists. Four morphological measures and 13 motor performance tests were administered to 72 co1lege judoists. Principal component analysis and normal varimax rotation were applied to the correlation matrix which was calculated with 17 test variables . Five factors were extracted and interpreted as follows : 1) Physical and static Strength, 2 ) Power of lower limbs, 3) Total body power with agility, 4) Endurance, 5) Flexibility, Taking both factorial validity and practicability of tests into consideration, the following conventional formulas for estimating each fundamental physical fitness domain extracted as factor were determined : F1=0.29X_1+0.13X_2+0.16X_3+0.15X_6+0.11X_7+0.36X_8+0.30X_9-0.03X_<17>-78.31,F2=0.60X_6+0.27X_<10>+0.22X_<11>-6.89X_<13>+29.95,F3=0.94X_4+1.21X_5+0.68X_<l5>-110.05,F4=0.73X_<11>+0.11X_<17>-33.54,F5=1.87X_<l2>+21.10, where X_1=stature, X_2=body weight, X_3=chest girth, X_4=sitting height, X_5=side step, X_6=vertical jump, X_7=back strength, X_8=grip strength (R), X_9=grip strength (L), X_<10>=modified Harvard step test, X_<11>=trunk extension, X_<12>=trunk flexion, X_<13>=50m dash, X_<14>=running broad jump, X_<15>=handball throw, X_<16>=chinning, and X_<17>=endurance running.
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  • Hiroshi Sasaki, Toshihiro Ishiko
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 43-51
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Five trained (long distance runners) and five untrained subjects tried to run on a treadmill at the relative intensity of 70% Vo_2 max for two hours, while blood samples were taken at 30min intervals. Three untrained subjects, however, gave up on the way after 90min of running because of exhaustion. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) level was higher in the trained group (3.6±0.8ng/ml) than in the untrained group (2.2±0.7ng/ml) at 30 min of the exercise. Thereafter, NE in the former stayed almost constant in contrast to gradual increase in the latter. Taken as a whole the NE level during exercise was almost same between two groups. Plasma epinephrine (E) level in both groups elevated gradually in accordance with time course of exercise. However, the degree of increase was more rapid in the untrained group, which resulted in significantly higher E (2.7±1.4ng/ml) compared with the trained group) (0.9±0.3ng/ml) at 90min of the exercise. On the other hand, lower respiratory exchange ratio, lower serum lactate, higher serum glucose and higher serum free fatty acid were attained in the trained group during exercise. Significantly negative correlations were observed between plasma E and serum glucose at 30min (r=-0.856,P<0.01) and 90min (r=-0.893, P<0.01) of the exercise; Plasma E increased exponentially when serum glucose decreased below the resting level. Therefore, high response of E in the untrained group to the exercise was considered mainly to be due to lower level of blood glucose caused by greater level of untilization of carbohydrate as the energy fuel.
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  • Kazuhiko Kusudo
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 53-62
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In den deutschen mittelalterlichen Stadten war die Fechtkunst die ubliche Leibesubung des Burgers, besonders des Handwerksgesellen. Die ,,Fechtschule" wurde auch bei den religiosen Festen und Herbstmessen abgehalten. Der Ursprung dieser burgerlithen Fechtschulen, d.h. des offentlichen Schaufechtens geht auf die zweite Halfte des 15. Jahrhunderts zuruck. Aber ihre Blutezeit war das 16. und 17. Jahrhundert. Das Gesamtbild dieser Fechtschulen im deutschen Mittelalter ist jedoch noch nicht genugend dargestellt, obgleich es Arbeiten gibt von K. Wassmannsdorff (1870), G. Hergsell(1896), A. Schaer (1901) und P. Maar (1961/62) usw.. Deshalb ist es notwendig neue Quellen zu finden, um die Geschichte der Fechtschulen naher zu klaren. In dieser Arbeit handelt es sich um die erste Veroffentlichung der deutschen Transkription der Handschrift uber die Fechterordnung zur Fechtschulhaltung, die vom Rat der Stadt Augsburg im 16. Jahrhundert verordnet wurde, zusammen mit der japanischen Ubersetzung. Die Handschrift ist in den noch nicht edierten Handschriften Hs.I.6.2°.5 in der Furstlichen Oettingen-Wallersteinschen Bibliothek und Kunstsammlung enthalten. Die Handschrift Hs.I.6.2°.5 ist auf Papier und Pergament geschrieben und hat 49 Blatter. Sie ist aus 4 Teilen zusammengesetzt, die von je anderen Schreibern geschrieben sind: 1) die Augsburgische Fechterordnung (2^r-5^v), 2) die Chroniken der Marxbruderschaften (7^r_20^r), 3) die Johann Liechtenauer's Fechtkunst (21^r-42^v) und 4) die Stiche des Martin Heemskerk's Fechter und Ringer (43^v_49^r). Diese Handschrift ist deshalb ein Sammelband, der spater die einzelnen Teile zu einem Buch verbindet. Wer die Handschriften in einem Sammelband einband und besaβ, war Paul Hector Mair (1517-1579), der Ratsdiener der Stadt Augsburg. Man kann das Jahr der Verfassung der Augsburgischen Fechterordnung in diese Handschriften nicht auffinden, jedobh aus folgenden Grunden ist das Jahr 1568 anzunehmen: 1) diese Handschrift war im Besitz des P.H. Mairs, 2) der Rat der Stadt Augsburg gab die Bestatigung der Ordnung der Fechtschulen am Jahr 1568 nach der Untersuchungen von Abt (1817) und A. Schaer (1901) und 3)diese Fechterordnung wurde ,,auff der obgemelten Maister des Schwerts vnd Freyfechter alhie vnderthenig Supplicieren "(Bl.2^r) verordnet. Die Augsburgische Fechterordnung (1568) ist aus den folgenden Ordnungen zusammengesetzt: 1)die verordneten Inhaber der Fechtschulen und wie die Fechtschulen mit der Zulassung der fremden Fechter gehalten werden sollen, 2) das Lernen des Fechtens, 3) die Vorstellungen der Freifechter, 4)die Abhaltung der Fechtschulen und welche Fechter in denselben einander vorgehen sollen, 5) die Artikeln, die auf den Fechtschulen gehalten werden sollen, 6) die Knaben, die die Wehren auf die Fechtschulen tragen, 7) das Geld, das die Zuschauer der Fechtschulen bezahlen sollen, 8) die Zeche,9) die Unterhaltung der Wehren und 10) die Strafe. Aus den Betrachtungen der einzelnen Artikeln def Augsburgischen Fechterordnungen sei angenommen, daβ,,die Fechtschule" nicht ,,die Ubungsstatte" des Fechtens bedeutet, sondern ,,das offentliche Schaufechten".
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  • Yasuyuki Yokoyama
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 63-72
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    In order to clarify the physical growth of the mentally retarded children, a cross-sectional survey as to eight anthropometric measurements and four related indicies was carried out on 488 boys and 269 girls at the age range of 9 through 17 years, from 1979 to 1981. The intellectually normal subjects as the controlled groups were 339 boys and 302 girls in Toyama city, and the Japanese children measured by the Ministry of Education in 1979. The means and the standard deviations for each measurement were shown by sex and age group. The following major results were found: 1) Means of body height in the mentally retarded were significantly less than those of the Japanese normal children at 0.01 level in both sexes with the exception of age 10 years for boys. 2) Means of chest circumference of the mentally retarded children were significantly smaller than those of the normal children at ages 13, l4, 15 and 16 years in boys and at ages 11 and 15 years in girls. 3) Means of body weight of the mentally retarded were significantly less than those of the normal children at ages 9, 13, 14, 15 and 16 years in boys and at ages 9, 11 and 15 years in girls. 4) In the body height and weight, the mentally retarded children showed larger coefficients of variation (CV) than the normal children in both sexes and in all age groups. In chest circumference ,the mentally retarded children showed smaller CV than the normal children at ages 13, 14 and 15years in boys and at age 9 years in girls. 5) Some age groups of the mentally retarded children had significantly thicker skinfolds than those of the normal groups at the triceps, subscapular and lateral abdomen. It is clear that these subjects tend to be obese. 6) The means of relative sitting height were larger in the mentally retarded groups. The mean differences of this index between the retarded and normal children were significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level for ages 12 to 17 years in both sexes.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 73-74
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 75-80
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages 81-87
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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