Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 29 , Issue 3
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (31K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages App6-
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Kiichi Otagiri, Kimie Kumayasu
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 183-193
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this paper is to explain the conceptional transition of sports in American history. For this purpose , the transition of the meanings of the term "sport " appeared in the American literary works before the 1920's is examined in this paper as a continuation of the former study: "A historical consideration of the term "sport" (Jap. J. Phys. Educ., vol. 27, no. 4)." According to the category founded in the former study, the term "sport" in 38 works written by 15 writers is divided into two groups by its genealogical meanings of the following two historical stages: one is the age before the Civil War and the other is the age after that. 1. The age before the Civil War. The conception of the term "sport" in this historical stage implies the meanings of the following words: pleasant pastime, frolicsome merriment, active exercise in the open air, sport of nature, to hunt or shoot, to fish and so on. The first three correspond to the meanings of "the early formative age of the conception", which was classified in the former study according to the words originated in its traditional use. And others correspond to that of "the first stage of the conceptional expansion and specialization" (17th and 18th centuries). Its main conception was classified as the word "field sport". 2. The age after the Civil War. The conception of the term "sport" in this historical stage implies the meanings of the following words: college athletics, athletic game or match, physical exercise and so on. These correspond to the meanings of "the second stage of the conceptional expansion and specialization" (19th century) in the former study. Its main conception was classified as the word "athletic sport". It is obvious that the above-mentioned transition from "field sport" to "athletic sport" in American literature proceeds in short period in comparison with the historical process of sports in England. The trend of this conceptional transition in the 19th century seems to be confirmed in the general history of American sports, and it is also confirmed that the appearance of "athletic sport" in the later half of the 19th century shows one transitional stage of the conceptional development into the 20th century.
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  • Koki Kudo
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 195-205
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study investigated the timing delay found in the performance of coincident timing task. Former studies referring to constant error (CE) in coincident timing responses have indicated several results in common. Especially prominent ones among them are as follows: (1) when the tasks required of the subjects are a gross motor activity, delays are dominant in their coincident timing responses, and (2) the tendency toward delay increases in proportion to the increase in the magnitude of motor response and/or the speed of moving stimulus. Three experiments were conducted in this study so as to reexamine those findings in former studies and then to clarify the reason why delays were dominant in gross motor responses. The task assigned to the Subjects in the first experiment was to synchronize the landing of a sideward jump on the right foot with the arrival of moving target at the timing point. The effect of the speed of the traget on timing error was examined. The results indicated that, regardless of the difference in the speed of the moving target, almost all the subjects showed obvious delays in their coincident timing responses. It was also suggested that, though the difference in the speed of the target produced no significant effect on CE, the subjects tended to change and adjust their response movement to correspond to the specific speed of the target. Thus, the findings in former studies were partly supported by this experiment. In the second experiment, the source of the delays in timing responses was analyzed. The timing error was presumed to be attributable to two components: one was the stimulus anticipation error (SAE), the error which was produced in the anticipation of the time when the moving target would arrive at the timing point, and the other was the movement anticipation error (MAE), the error which was produced in the estimation of the duration in which each subject would complete his movement. On the basis of this premise, an attempt was made in this experiment to separate the timing error into two components. The result indicated that underestimation was clearly found in MAE whereas there was no specific tendency in SAE. It was inferred from this finding that the delays in timing responses might be caused by the underestimation of the duration needed for the response movement of the subjects. The result of the second experiment brought forth the hypothesis that, when SAE was held constant in coincident timing responses, the timing delay would be dependent on the length of the time meeded for the completion of the response movement. Thus, the purpose of the third experiment was to check the validity of this hypothesis. The result supported the hypothesis. The delays in timing responses increased as the duration of the response movement increased. This also seemed to endorse the adequancy of the inference which was proposed in the second experiment.
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  • Masanobu Ito
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 207-216
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of covert rehearsal and the characteristics of the response biasings by interpolated mental activities in- short-term retention of isometric force information. The dependent variables were the percent constant error (PCE) and the percent absolute error (PAE) made by 264 male undergraduate students who attempted to reproduce a criterion force of either 7 kg, 15 kg, or 23 kg during immediate (5 dec.) and delayed (30 sec.) recall tests. The order of administration of the recall tests was counterbalanced across subjects. The 30-sec retention intervals were filled with either covert rehearsal, overt backwards-counting, covert backwards-counting, or resting without rehearsal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) It was found that there was no forgetting over time when the covert rehearsal strategy was used during the retention interval. 2) The vividness scores of kinesthetic imagery during covert rehearsal significantly correlated with the PCE in delayed recall test. These findings suggest that the force information can be centrally processed and decays very little during a retention interval if covert rehearsal strategy is used. 3) The PCE in both criterion forces of 15kg and 23kg significantly shifted in the negative direction over time for the resting condition, while the PCE in both criterion forces of 7kg and 23kg was significantly shifted in the positive direction when the interval was filled with the overt counting. 4) The PCE in the covert backwards-counting condition was less positive than that in the overt counting condition, and was more positive than that in the resting condition. These findings appear to support a dual-process theory by Pepper and Herman involving decay and interference features so that they account for response biasing by interpolated mental activity in short-term memory of force information.
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  • Akinori Fukudome, Tomio Tajima, Toshihiro Ootaka, Shuzo Katao, Shigeru ...
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 217-225
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to estimate the landing impulse absorbing ability for the peak force time and the resultant force from the viewpoint of the skill for dispersion of impulse. This study consisted of two experiments: Comparison between landing impulse absorbing ability and different lengths of landing distances, and comparison of landing impulse absorbing ability between two groups of different motor ability levels (n=8 per group) which were selected by a self-estimate questionnaire which included 37 items concerning gross motor ability. For example, "Can you ride a bicycle?", "Can you walk on stilts?", "Can you serve a ping-pong ball with back handed service?". A three dimensional force plate was used. Upward , forward and backward ground reaction force curves were obtained for falls from a 60cm tall bench. The results were as follows: 1. Comparison between the good and the poor groups. 1) The resultant force of the poor group was three times larger than that of the good groups. 2) A significant difference in the angle of the resultant force was found; that is, while the good group showed a gradual change, the boor group showed an abrupt change from 0.4 to 0.6 sec after the landing moment. 3) The upward impulses were compared between the two groups but no significant difference was found each other. 2. Comparison between various lengths of the landing distances. 1) No significant corre1ation was obtained between the peak force times and the landing distances. 2) A maximum resultant force was found to be 0.2sec from the landing moment when the landing distances were 30 and 60 cm. In the case of a 90 cm landing distance, a maximum resultant vector was found to be from 0.3 found to be 0.4sec after the landing moment. 3) The 1onger the landing distance, the greater the decrease in the coefficient of variance of the resultant force. These results indicated that the subjects who were superior in landing ability had a so called "smoothing ability" which was based on the function of the dispersion of landing impulse in a unit of time. Previous reports have indicated that the peak force time and the ratio of peak force to weight were used to estimate the landing impulse absorbing ability. The findings suggest that the resultant force should also be added to the parameters for the estimation of the landing impulse absorbing ability.
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  • Komei Ikuta, Takashi Kurihara, Fumio Nakadomo, Sadayoshi Harimoto
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 227-235
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The effects of sprint training were examined on the sprint ability and such important factors of physical fitness as agility, strength and power. Six non-athlete male university students aged 19-20were engaged in the training program consisted of 50 m and l00m sprint running 3 times a day, 3days per week, for a period of l0 weeks. Fifty-and a hundred-meters sprint record, step length, step frequency, stepping efficiency while sitting on a chair, back strength, leg extension strength, leg flexion strength, vertical jump performance and ergonomic power were measured before and after the training period. The results were as follows : 1) While training effect was significant in 100m sprint record (p<0.05), it was insignificant in 50m sprint record, step length and step frequency. 2) No significant change was found in a test for agility, i.e., stepping efficiency while sitting on a chair. 3) Remarkably large training effects were found in back strength (p<0.05), leg extension strength (left and right: p<0.01) and leg flexion strength (right: p<0.01, left: p<0.05), indicating increased muscle strength. 4) Training effects were significant in the ergonomic powers exerted under relatively heavier work loads (6 and 7kp: p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively); while insignificant under relatively lighter work loads (3, 4, 5kp) and also at the vertical jump. It is concluded that sprint training of the non-athlete male university students not having special physical training significantly improved 100m sprint record. This training effect is due to the increase in the muscle strength of leg and back, and the improvement in the power output exerted under relatively heavier work loads.
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  • Kazufumi Hirakawa, Sanae Ueno, Yutaka Kajikawa
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 237-244
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to compare the body compostition and aerobic and anaerobic abilities between low and high performance groups of female students in 12-min run. Hight, weight, % body fat, vertical jump, and 12-min run performance were measured on 437 female students. Their mean (±SD) va1tie of 12-min run performance was 2208.5±165.7m. Out of 437 girls tested, 9 girls (group L) whose 12-min run performace were lower than 1959m, and 14 girls (group H) whose performance were higher than 2457m volunteered as the subjects. The leg volume, Vo_2 max, anaerobic threshold (AT), Vo_2 at submaximal treadmill running, maximal leg strength, and maximal anaerobic power were measured. Group L differed significantly (p<0.001) from group H in Vo_2 max (38.5±2.2 vs 47.l±3.1ml). Vo_2 max per LBM of group L was also lower (15.9%) than that of group H , but muscle and bone volume of leg was similar in both groups . Group L tended to show the larger values in weight (4.6%), % body fat (10.0%), and Vo_2 at 130m/min (running economy) (5.4%)as compared with group H. There were no differences in AT, HR max, and maximal leg strength between the two groups. AT values of both groups appeared at about 62% of Vo_2 max. Maximal anaerobic power per body weight of group L was lower (11.47%, p<0.01) than that of group H, which was caused by the slow velocity of group L at the maximal anaerobic power on the force-velocity relationship. On results of mu1tiple-regression analysis predicting the 12-min run performance from other variables in the combined group, the relative importance of the independent variables as determinants of 12-min run performance were in order of Vo_2 max (ml/kg/min), running economy, and maximal anaerobic power per body weight. This multiple-regression equation accounted for 93.6% of the variance of 12-min run performance.
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  • Norikatsu Kasuga
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 245-249
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of training on the metabolism of plasma free fatty acid (FFA), and fatty acid (FA) composition of plasma FFA and adipose tissue triglyceride (TG). The results are summarized as follows: 1) There were no significant differences between pre- and post-training values in the total plasma FFA. 2) Among the individual FFA at rest, the percentage of saturated FA increased and unsaturated FA decreased as a result of physical training. 3) Comparing trained group with untrained group, similar differences were observed in FA composition of plasma FFA and the adipose tissue TG. There were higher percentage of saturated FA and lower percentage of unsaturated FA in the trained group. The above resluts suggested that FA pattern and FA metabolism of plasma and adipose tissue are changed under the influence of physical training.
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  • Katsuo Fujiwara, Haruo Ikegami
    Type: Article
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 251-261
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    This study was designed to investigate the anticipated postural control and the dynamic postural control ability through the postural response to the floor vibration during maintaining the standing posture. A vibration table with a force platform, on which the subjects maintained the standing posture with eyes open or closed, was vibrated sinusoidaly in anteroposterior or right-left directions under the condition of 2.5 cm amplitude and various frequencies (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and l.5 Hz). The fluctuations of the center of foot pressure (CFP) and various body portions (vertex, lumbale and caput fibulae) were measured using the force platform and potentiometers to which the silk threads connected the movement of the body portions. By frequency spectrum analysis, the amplitude and phase of each fluctuation in vibration frequency were obtained. The stability was evaluated by the amplitude of the CFP fluctuation. Subjects were ten male trained gymnasts and ten untrained male university students . The results were summarised as follows ; 1) The fluctuation of the body in an absolute coordinate system decreased in amplitude and increased in phase delay with the increase in frequency of vibration. Such trend was especial1y remarkable in the higher portions of the body. 2)In the vibration of 0.1Hz, the phase advance of the CFP fluctuation to the floor vibration was observed in about a half of the subjects, and the stability of standing posture in open eyes was higher in the subjects with phase advance than those with phase delay. The phase advance of the CFP fluctuation couldn't be explained by the physical properties and was accepted as the evidence of the feed forward postural control. 3) In the vibration of 0.5Hz or higher, the phase of the CFP fluctuation to the floor vibration was delay in all the subject, and the greater the phase delay, the higher the stability of standing posture. It was suspected that the stability was augmented by actively controlling the phase delay which caused by the physical properties of the body. 4) In the vibration of 0.5 and 1.0Hz, the stability of standing posture was much higher in the trained than in the untrained and with eyes open than with eyes closed. It was suggested that those vibration frequencies were suitable for the evaluation of dynamic postural control ability.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 263-268
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages App7-
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages App8-
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (120K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages App9-
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (51K)
  • Type: Cover
    1984 Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: December 01, 1984
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (51K)
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