Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 29 , Issue 4
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (67K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages App10-
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • KiHack Kim, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 269-283
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the factorial structure of general motor ability in university student and its sex difference. Samples were 173 freshmen and 226 freshwomen. Three factor solutions; Principal factor solution, Alpha factor solution and Canonical factor solution, were applied to the 34×34 correlation matrices in men and women, respectively. Thereafter, multiple orthogonal solutions were led by Normal Varimax rotation procedure to extract the significant factors. From these results the sex difference in factorial structure was discussed by comparing factor similarity, easiness of interpretation and the hypothesized factors between both sexes. Nine and eleven significant factors were extracted for men and women, respectively. The factors extracted commonly in men and women were Static strength, Explosive strength, Muscular en-durance, Gross body coordination, Quickness of movement, Body linearity and Body bulk. But these factors when judged from the factorial similarity and factor loadings, seemed to have different characteristics in some extent. In general, the comparisons of the number of extracted factors, easiness of interpretation of factors, and the hypothesized factors between men and women, it was considered that the women's factorial structure was more differentiated that of men, and the clearer structure of general motor ability was suggested in women than in men.
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  • Takashi Kurihara, Komei Ikuta, Fumio Nakadomo, Sadayoshi Harimoto
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 285-294
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of sprint training were examined on the form in sprint running. Six non-athlete male university students aged 19-20 years engaged in the training program consisted of 50 m and 100 m sprint running three times a day, three days per week, for a period of ten weeks. They ran 50m and l00m using a starting block with maximum effort before and after the training period, and their form in sprint running was filmed at 100 frames per second at 40 m (50 m dash) and 85 m (100 m dash)point from the start 1ine. Further, an accomplished male sprinter (21 years of age) ran 50 m dash and his sprint form was filmed at 40 m point. Length of one cycle (length of two steps), duration of one cycle (time needed for two steps), velocity at the point, sprint record and seven kinematic factors were measured. Kinematic factors were 1) Upper leg angle and angular velocity, 2) Lower leg angle and angular velocity, 3) Knee angle and angular velocity, 4) Locus of toe around trochanter major. Results were as follows. 1) Before training, the toe movement around trochanter major in the former half of swing phase of non-athlete was lower than that of the sprinter (50m dash). 2) After training, the toe movement around trochanter major in the former half of swing phase was higher than that measured before the training (50m dash). 3) After training, maximum angular velocity of upper leg during top speed in 50 m and 100m sprint running significantly became faster than those measured before training. Maximum and minimum angular velocity of the knee during top speed in 50m sprint running significantly became faster than those measured before training. 4) Duration of one cycle at 40 m (50 m dash) and 85 m (100 m dash) point during sprint running shortened after the training significantly. Length of one cycle at the same point in some subjects lengthened, while such was not the case in other subjects. Running velocity which was culculated from duration and length of one cycle improved significantly. It is concluded that the short period of sprint training has the effect to improve sprint form and the sprint ability of male adults.
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  • Takashi Kurokawa, Taiji Togashi, Takeo Nomura, Haruo Ikegami
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 295-305
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to discuss the effect of swimming efficiency (e), buoyancy, and participation of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism on the relationship between swimming performance and energy metabolic capacity. The maximal oxygen debt (O_2 debt_max) and maximal oxygen uptake (Vo_2max) were measured after and during swimming in a swimming flume, as a parameter of anaerobic and aerobic capacity, respectively. Oxygen requirement (E) and swimming efficiency (e) were calculated from O_2 debt_max,Vo_2max, and swimming record. The subjects consisted of 44 freestyle swimmers with different sex, age and swimming record. The correlation between O_2 debt_max and 100m swimming speed was r=0.551 (p<0.01) for the group) of whole subjects, while the coefficients for the three groups classified in terms of e_1 (e in 100m swimming) were r=0.739 (p<0.01) for the low e_1 group (N=14, e_1=3.33), r=0.912 (p<0.01) for the intermediate e_1 group (N=17, 3.33<e_1=4.19), and r=0.645 (p<0.05) for the high e_1 group (N=13,4.19<e_1). The correlation coefficient between Vo_2max and 400m swimming speed was r=0.554 (p<0.01) for the whole group including all the subjects, while these coefficients for the sub-groups formed for e_4 (e in 400m swimming) were r=0.730 (p<0.01) for the low e_4 group (N=14, e_4≦5.24), r=0.927 (p<0.01) for the intermediate e_4 group (N=17, 5.24<e_4≦6.56) and r=0.486 for the high e_4 group (N=13, 6.56<e_4). Thus, correlations between swimming performance and metabolic capacity became higher for the group of subjects with homogeneous e than for the group of whole subjects with greater variability in their e. This result suggests that the relationship between swimming performance and metabolic capacity is markedly effected by the factor of e. Correlations between swimming performance and metabolic capacity were higher in absolute value than in relative value (/kg). This is probably because body weight is supported by buoyancy in swimming. Swimming performances in 100m and 400m races correlated higher with E than with O_2 debt_max or Vo2_max. This suggests that contributions of aerobic metabolism in sprint race, and of anaerobic metabolism in middle and long distance races should not be underestimated.
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  • Masanobu Ito, Toshihiko Sanjoh
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 307-314
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between expected magnitude and produced magnitude in producing handgrip force and running time by using the method of magnitude production from the view point of psychophysics, and to investigate the directionality and the consistency of production errors by analysing the constant error (CE) and the ratio of variable error (RVE). The standard force and time (modulus), designed as 100% grade, were handgrip force and time of 20 meter-run under the condition of maximum exertion. The instructed grades were l0, 30, 50, 70,and 90% to maximum. The main resu1ts are summarised as follows: 1) A produced magnitude grew ad a power function of an expected magnitude with the exponent of 1.83 for handgrip force and 1.72 for running time. There were no significant differences between males and females with respect to the exponent of the function in both tasks. 2) On handgrip force, the central tendency as a central point around 50% grade, where smaller force (10% and 30%) tended to be overshot and larger force (70% and 90%) tended to be undershot, was recognized on the CE. On running time, the CE was characterized by overshooting in all conditions, while the tendency of overshooting significantly increased as the instructed grade decreased. There were no significant differences between males and females on the CE for both tasks. 3) The RVE for the instructed grade of 10% was significantly higher than that for each of the others on both handgrip force and running time. There were no significant differences between males and females on the RVE for both tasks.
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  • Mieko Ae
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 315-323
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The results of the previously reported studies on group cohesiveness/performance relationships in sport groups do not necessarily agree each other. Two reasons, if not any more, may be pointed out for such descrepancies, i.e., validity of measurement and suitability of the groups that are being investigated. The current study intended to clarify the latter of such two issues and thus investigated if group cohesiveness varied with group-orientation and high group cohesion resulted in successful team performances. Three hundred and five female volleyballers of ages between 18 and 35 years volunteered as subjects to whom a questionnaire survey was conducted. They consisted of five housewives' teams (N=51), eight community club teams (N=71), five varsity teams (N=66) and twelve industrial workers' teams (N=117). Nature of the group was then studied and thus housewives' And community club teams were found to be recreation oriented while varsity and industrial workers' teams, competition oriented. Group cohesiveness was measured by use of two scales, i.e., social affect scale and cohesiveness measures (directly assessed). The cohesiveness measures consisted of two subscales, namely interpersonal attraction-cohesion and belonging and task-cohesion. Such measurement was administered to each team. The results may be summarised as follows: 1) Receration oriented teams had higher interpersonal attraction-cohesion and social affect score and lower belonging and task-cohesion than competition oriented teams. 2) Significant effect of cohesiveness on team success was found only in belonging and task-cohesion items. The higher belonging and task-cohesion indices, the more the team seemed to be successful in the competition. From these results it was considered that it is necessary to control the level of group orientation to examine further the cohesiveness/performance relationship. And it was also suggested that cohesiveness in the view-point of task-cohesion would be a matter of interest in the future studies.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 325-361
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 363-370
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Index
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages Toc1-
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages App11-
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages Cover15-
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages Cover16-
    Published: March 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
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