体育学研究
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
30 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の16件中1~16を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 竹田 清彦, 大久保 英哲
    原稿種別: 本文
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 1-12
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    In den letzten Jahren sind die Zahlen der hoheren Schulen mit der Einrichtung eines Sportzweiges (Taiiku-gakka) in Japan standig angestiegen. Im Jahre 1984 konnten 31 Schulen diesen Sportzweig anbieten. Zum Zwecke einer besseren Weiterentwicklung dieses Sportzweiges werden die "Schulversuche Sportgymnasien" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1968-72) vorgestellt und ausgewertet. In diesem Beitrag werden zunachst die Konzeptionen und Verlaufe der "Schulversuche Sportgymnasien" in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland dargestellt, die auf Grund von Modellen des Deutschen Sportbundes, des Bundesverbandes Deutscher Leibeserzieher sowie des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen entwickelt wurden. Die Ergebnisse sind folgende: 1) Die Konzeptionen der "Schulversuche Sportgymnasien" verliefen in drei Entwicklungsphasen:(1) 1961-64.. Die Berichte uber die Kinder- und Jugendsportschulen der DDR erregten zwar in der Bundesrepublik kein beSonderes Aufsehen, doch ebneten sie mit den Weg fur die spatere Einrichtung besonderer schulischer Sthwerpunktangebote im Fach Sport. (2) 1964-67. Infolge des hervorragenden Abschenidens der DDR-Spitzensportler bei den Olympischen Spielen in Tokyo 1964 und bei vielen Weltmeisterschaften sowie angesichts der Vorbereitung auf die Olympischen Spiele im eigenen Landes (Munchen 1972) ergriff der Deutsche Sportbund die Initiative zur Anregung von "Sportgymnasien" als einer besonderen Art von Sportschulen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. (3) l967-72. Wegen der padagogischen Problematik von speziellen Sportschulen innerhalb des allgemeinen Bildungswesens wird auf die Einrichtung von "Sportgymnasien" verzichtet und als Ersatz dafur die Einrichtung von Sportzweigen / Sportschwerpunkten / Schwepunktfachern zusatzlich zu den traditionellen Wahlmoglichkeiten eroffnet. Da die gymnasiale Oberttufe ab 1972 reformiert wurde,konnte sich hier am leichtesten ein Schwerpunkt Sport (Leistungsfach Sport) durchsetzen. 2) Die fruhesten Begrundungen der "Schulversuche Sportgymnasien" waren leistungssportlich orientiert (Talentsuche, Talentforderung). Spater fuhrten padagogische Motive dazu, die Schwerpunkte Sport am allgemeinen Erziehungsauftrag der Schulen zu orientieren. 3) Die "Schulversuche Sportgymnasien" fuhrten zu einer breiten Diskussion und auch Klarung der Frage, welche Rolle der Leistungssport im Bereich der allgemeinbildenden Schulen einnehmen durfte. 4) Der Plan zum "Schulversuch Sportgymnasium" des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (Juni 1970)stellte eine aktive Initiative zur Erneuerung der Bildungsinhalte im Rahmen der gymnasialen Schulreform dar.
  • 笠井 達哉
    原稿種別: 本文
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 13-24
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー

    In normal subjects, the premoter time and electromyographic reaction time (EMG-RT) of the biceps brachii has been determined to be different in flexion (F) and supination (S) of the forearms. Accordingly, while the same muscle performs in both functions, these two voluntary movements would be sepatately organized in the brain. Moreover, the EMG-RT differences, obtained by subtracting the EMG-RTs of S from those of F, disappeared in athletes of unilateral sporting events'(Kasai, 1982; l983). The present experiments are therefore undertaken to examine the effects of forehand and backhand stroke practice by the preferred hand on the EMG-RTs of F and S, and to collect information with respect to the practice influences on the motor control systems in the brain. Subjects for forehand stroke practice were 36 normal subjects (24 males and 12 females) in the practice group and 27 normal subjects (13 males and 14 females) in the non-practice group, and 21 normal male subjects for backhand stroke practice, respectively. They were all right-handed and by self report did not have considerable amount of experience in unilateral sporting events. The tasks of the subjects were the F and S of both arms simultaneously, responding to a sound signal as quickly as possible. EMG-RTs were measured with the surface EMG of the biceps brachii. The EMG-RTs of F and S were measured six times per each subject. Session 1 was administered to assess the pre-practice (P) EMG-RT. Subsequently, one session was designated to be 100 forehand and backhand strokes practiced by the preferred hand. Five sessions were repeated. A 5-min. rest period was allowed for recovery following each practice session to prevent any cumulative fatigue effect. At the end of each practice session, the EMG-RTs of F and S were measured, respectively. For the purpose of analysis of practice after-effect, the EMG-RTs of F and S of the same subjects in the forehand practice group were measured 3-4 months after the initial sessions. Overall, the EMG-RTs of F and S were measured 7 times per each subject in the forehand practice group. In the non-practice group, the 6 sessions of EMG-RT measurement were performed using the same procedure employed for the practice group without the practice tasks. In the backhand stroke practice group, experimental procedures for the measurement of EMG-RTs and practice were same as those of the forehand stroke practice group without the after-effect examination. The main findings in the present study are summarized as follows: 1. The EMG-RTs of F and S did not change in the forehand stroke practice of the preferred hand. 2. The EMG-RT differences of the practiced hand (right hand) changed significantly. 3. In the non-practice group, the EMG-RT differences of both sides did not change. This result indicates that changes in EMG-RT differences in the practice group resulted from forehand stroke practices by the preferred hand. 4. However, those changes disappeared in 3-4 months after practices. 5. In the backhand stroke practice group, the EMG-RTs of F and S did not significantly change, similar to the findings of the forehand stroke practice group, but the EMG-RT differences of both sides varied significantly in preferred hand practice. 6. Electromyographic discharge patterns of upper-limb muscles between forehand and backhand stroke were definitely different. The findings are interpreted as follows: First, the motor pattern generator would be influenced by unilateral forehand and backhand stroke practices. Moreover, the difference of the practice task (movement pattern) plays an important role in different functional changes of the motor pattern generator: Second; the period of continuation of the practice plays an important role in changes of the quality of a system programming the movement patterns (the motor control systems). From these interpretations, it is suggested that the quality of movement

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  • 杉原 隆
    原稿種別: 本文
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 25-35
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    To clearfify the effects of physical activity on personality, the relationships between perceived motor competence and personality characteristics in preschool children were investigated. Subjects were 6 years old 81 boys and 92 girls. Through individual interviews, children were asked to what extent they were good or poor player in physical games which they frequently play at kindergarten. Based on the answers obtaind, children were divided into high and low perceived motor competence groups. The main results are as follows. 1) In the rating scale, high perceived motor competence boys were fated by their teachers as more confident, active and cooperative with others than low perceived motor competence boys (p<0.05). 2) In the semantic differentia1 method, high perceived motor competence boys were imaged by their mothers as more vivid, active, submissive and quick and less timid and coward (p<0.05). 3) As to the girls, only one significantly different item was found in the rating stale. That is, high perceived motor competence group was rated by their teachers as more cooperative with others than low perceived motor competence group (p<0.05). 4) There were no significant differences between high and low perceived motor competence girls in image scores. 5) High perceived motor competence boys were superior to low perceived motor competence boys in motor ability tests and motor ability ratings by the teachers. 6) As to the girls, there were no significant differences between high and low perceived motor competence groups in motor ability tests Land motor ability ratings by teachers. These results suggest that, in the ear1y childhood, physical activity give an influence upon personality through the medium of perceived motor competence, especially in the case of boys.
  • 戎 利光
    原稿種別: 本文
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 37-43
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的は,運動持続距離を二等分あるいは三等分と分散して走運動を行った場合に,心肺持久性及び血液脂質に及ぼす身体的効果が,分散しないで一度に全距離を走った場合の効果と異なるか否かを明らかにすることである。53名の健康な男子学生をA群からD群の4群に分類した。A群は全距離を一度に走り,B群は半分の距離を1日2度(朝,夕)に分散して走り,C群は3分1の距離を1日3度(朝,昼,夕)に分散して走った。D群は対照群であり,本研究期間中特別な身体運動をしなかった。D群を除く全被験者は,週に3日間,各個人の最高心拍数の80%を維持して10週間に渡り,屋内のタータントラックを走った。そして, このトレーニング期間前後の最大酸素摂取量,最高心拍数,脂肪百分率(水中体重測定による),1.5マイル走の記録,総トリグリセライド,総コレステロール,高比重リボ蛋白コレステロール,低比重リボ蛋白コレステロール,超低比重リボ蛋白コレステロールを,各群ごどに比較,検討した。その結果,次のような結論を得た。分散した最短走距離が心肺持久性や血液脂質に影響を及ぼすような距離であれば,同一の運動強度及び頻度で同一距離を走る限り,その走距離を二等分あるいは三等分と分散しても総消費エネルギーは同一であり,心肺持久性や血液脂質に及ぼす影響に差はない。本研究は,米国ブリガムヤング大学及び米国デザレットジム財団からの研究交付金を受けた。
  • 衣笠 隆, 藤田 紀盛, 田中 英彦
    原稿種別: 本文
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 45-53
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study attempted to investigate the effect of preliminary jump action on the total body choice response time. The preliminary jump action is frequently observed in ball games. In a tennis game, for example, the jump action may be seen in the movement of the receiver prior to the server's hitting a ball or just before returning a ball. The current study provided two experimental conditions. Firstly, each subject was asked to jump voluntarily during the moment of preparatory period (JUMP). Secondly, each subject attempted to maintain his posture without jump action during the period (NO-JUMP). In both experimental conditions, each subject was asked to step out either right or left side indicated by the reaction signal as quickly as possible. Twenty healthy males volunteered as subjects for this study. Three interval times were analysed in the following manner. First, the choice response time (RESPONSE TIME), defined as the interval time from the reaction signal to the moment of step out, was recorded. Second, the choice reaction time (REACTION TIME), defined as the interval time from the reaction signal to the moment of lifting a leg for stepping Out, was measured. Then, the movement time (MOVEMENT TIME), defined as the interval time subtracted RESPONSE TIME from REACTION TIME was taken. Moreover, this study investigated the effect of the timing of performing perliminary jump action during the preparatory period on RESPONSE TIME and the practice effect of performing the two conditions OUMP and NO-JUMP) on RESPONSE TIME for 16 days. Statistical analysis of variance for comparison of various experimental conditions was proceeded. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Both RESPONSE TIME and REACTION TIME under JUMP condition were shorter than these under N0-JUMP condition. But MOVEMENT TIME under JUMP condition was not necessarily shorter than that under JUMP condition. 2. As the landing time (interval time between the warning signal and landing after a free preliminary jump during the preparatory period) resulted in wide range within subject and between subjects. No significant relationships between RESPONSE TIME and the landing time were found. 3. The practice effect of both JUMP and NO-JUMP conditions over 16 days resulted in shorter RESPONSE TIME. RESPONSE TIME under JUMP condition was shorter than that under NO-JUMP condition. But no differences Were found on the practice effect between the given conditions of JUMP and NO-JUMP. 4. The study suggested that shortened RESPONSE TIME with preliminary jump action resulted from both increased muscle activity and higher arousal level.
  • 三田 勝己, 青木 久, 塚原 玲子, 矢部 京之助
    原稿種別: 本文
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 55-63
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since EMG waveform detected by surface electrodes is a complex spatio-temporal summation of many muscle fiber potentials, it is considered as a random signal or a stochastic process. Statistical methods can play a useful role in estimating the physiological informations from such signals. The present study placed focus on a myoelectric activity during a sustained contraction which was one of the fundamental movements in man. In order to establish the basis of statistical analysis of the EMG, the normality and stationarity which were the most basic statistical properties of the stochastic process were strictly examined. The experimental and processed results showed that the probability density function of the EMG amplitude was the first order normal distribution. The mean was not affected by a shift of time origin and remained in a constant level, i.e., zero. The autocorrelation function depended only on the time lag (τ) and had a positive finite value only for τ=0. From these features, it was verified that the EMG was stationary in wide sense; Furthermore, its important properties of uncorrelated and orthogonal nature were revealed.
  • 青柳 領, 高橋 邦郎, 藤猪 省太, 大薮 由夫, 醍醐 敏郎, 松浦 義行
    原稿種別: 本文
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 65-74
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, in the points of view of factor structure, morphological characteristics in judoists were investigated. Fourteen morphological measures were administered to 91 top class judoists. Principal component analysis and normal varimax rotation were applied to the correlation matrix which was calculated with 14 morphological measures and one morphological index. Then, the two factors were extracted and interpreted as follows; 1 ) Dead weight 2) Body size In the two dimensional factor space, morphological characteristics were discussed through investigating the configuration of ellipses that showed weight class groups in judo competitions. The results were as follows; 1) Morphological characteristics in judoists could be almost accounted with two factors, i.e., dead weight and body size. 2) Smaller individual differences within -78 kg and -60 kg classes, and greater differences one within +95kg class groups were found than other classes. 3) Morphological characteristics between -60 kg class and -71 kg class group resembled more than the cases of other classes. 4) Qualitatively different morphological characteristcs were found between +95kg class and lesser than -95 kg class groups.
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 75-79
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 80-90
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. 91-103
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. Cover3-
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1985 年 30 巻 1 号 p. Cover4-
    発行日: 1985/06/01
    公開日: 2017/09/27
    ジャーナル フリー
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