Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 30 , Issue 3
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages Cover9-
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages Cover10-
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (58K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages App5-
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Keiji Yamaji
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 183-193
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The intent of this bibliographical review was to examine the highest Vo_2 max values of top athletes. The highest mean Vo_2 max values were reported in the case of 8 male Germany Olympic oarsmen and 5 male Swedish top cross-country skiers, and 5 female Finnish cross-country skiers and 6 female American long distance runners: 6.16 l/min, 82.6 ml/kg.min, 4.03 l/min and 68.8 ml/kg.min, respectively. The highest individual Vo_2 max values for male were 7.77 l/min reported in one of the oarsmen winning the Olympic Gold Medals in 1968, and 94ml/kg.min observed in a cross-country ski champion in Norway. Furthermore, the highest individual Vo_2 max values for female were 4.44 l/min in a Russian cross-country skier, and 77 ml/kg.min in an American long distance runner and a Russian cross-country skier.
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  • Shuji Yamashita, Shinichi Demura, Nobuhiko Tada, Jinzaburo Matsuzawa
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 195-212
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to position sport club leader into a broad framework of members' satisfaction/dissatisfaction and to present data of how leaders can meet members' needs. It was assumed that members' satisfaction would result from the interaction of levels of expectations about anticipated benefits by getting membership and later evaluations of perceived benefits. Data were collected from 781 members of the community sport clubs by measns of a questionnaire in the summer of 1984. The questionnairing included the 18 items besides those as to the leader like1y to function as the utility attributes in sport club. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Leaders broadly speaking fulfill the members' expectations, while team sport leaders are interpreted as the latent dissatisfactory factor. 2) Leader as a determinant for members' satisfaction/dissatisfaction contributes more significantly to the evaluations of sport club under the existing circumstances than to the expectations before getting membership. 3) When viewed in the light of member's expectation to the leader, it seems closely related to the member's desire to develop their own sport competence, while their evaluation considered, it seems closely related to various conditions for the sports training and practice. 4) Leaders who would be expected to satisfy the growth of member are in demand by female more often than male, and in individual or dual sports more often than in team sports. 5) If the need of leaders who would enable the club with the better environmental conditions may be felt by the members, it may occur more in individual or team sport or among those with longer membership.
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  • Haruo Ikegami, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Sung Kang Hi, Zuiko Takahashi
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 213-220
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Isometric muscle contraction of lower extremities was evaluated to elucidate its preventive effect on orthostatic hypotension. Eight college students including 5 males and 3 females were volunteered to be the subjects. After resting period of a half hour the subjects seated on a chair for 10 minutes and followed by standing for 18 minutes. During the initial 10 minutes of standing period the subjects were asked to stand still. In the following 5 minutes the subjects repeated muscle contraction and relaxation of the both lower extremities with such a pattern as: contraction of anterior tibial muscle by extending fingers dorsally for one second followed by isometric contraction of femoral quadriceps muscle for one second. This combined muscle contractions were repeated for 5 minutes once in 10 seconds, once in 5 seconds or once every 2 seconds. During sitting; quiet standing, muscle contraction, and 3 minutes after contraction period, blood pressure was measured and ECG, phonocardiogram, and carotid pulse wave were recorded to determine heart fate, pre-ejection period index (PEPi), and ejection time index (LVETi). During quiet standing systolic blood pressure fell and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased. PEPi was lengthend and LVETi was shortened. These findings were completely compensated by muscle contraction, and blood pressure was kept above the control value through the period of muscle contraction. The results led us to a conclusion that isometric muscle contraction of lower extremities during standing affords a powerful protection against orthostatic hypotension. And the frequency of one contraction in 10 seconds is verified to be enough for this purpose.
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  • Shigeru Muramatsu
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 221-229
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of present study was to compare the effects between isokinetic and isotonic trainings with equivalent training doses. Forty two subjects (18-23 yr) were divided into five groups with respect to equal isometric arm strength and arm flexion power: one isotonic training group, three isokinetic training groups trained at the speed of 5, 20, or 30rpm, and one control group. In order to equate the doses of isokinetic and isotonic trainings, impulse was used. All the experimental groups were trained three days per week for four weeks. Isometric arm strength in all training groups was significantly increased (p<0.05 of p<0.01) after training, but the significant difference was not observed among training groups. The arm flexion power of 5 and 20rpm isokinetic training groups was significantly increased after training; the increase in 20 rpm group was superior to that in 5 rpm group. But 30 rpm group did not show any significant increase after training in all experimental conditions. And the arm flexion power of isotonic training group increased only in the minimum experimental load. These results indicate that the isokinetic training at the speed of 20rpm would be superior to the other trainings for the development of the muscular power.
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  • Masayuki Satake, Haruo Ikegami
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 231-239
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of change in stride frequency and/or stride length on oxygen uptake during distanc6 running, and to compare female runners with male runners in this point. Ten runners, nine table tennis players and eight swimmers underwent treadmill running at three different speeds. Running speed was constant and stride frequency was systematically changed over a range of ±20 strides/min of the free stride frequency (Experiment 1). Five male runners and four female runners ran on a treadmill at stride lengths between 60 cm and 130 cm with a given stride. frequency (160, 180 or 200 strides/min) and at stride frequencies between 150 and 200 strides/min with a given stride length (80 or 100cm) (Experiment 2). The measurements of oxygen uptake and HR were made during steady state in each running. 1) The most economical stride frequency (optimal stride frequency) in males always coincided with the free stride frequency. Both increase and decrease in stride frequency from the free stride frequency caused increase in oxygen uptake in male runners. Regarding female runners, oxygen uptake during distance running was a1most constant over a wide range of stride frequency (170-220). Specific optimal stride frequency was not observed in female runners. 2) Running with a given stride frequency caused a rectilinear relationship between oxygen uptake and stride length in male and female runners. It was suggested that change in stride length scarcely affected running efficiency during distance running. 3) There was an obvious difference between male and female runners in the effect of change in stride frequency on oxygen uptake during distance running with a given stride length. Decrease in stride frequency below 170 strides/min lowered the running efficiency in runners of both sexes. Above 180 strides/min, there was an exponential relationship between oxygen uptake and stride frequency in male runners, and a rectilinear relationship in female runners. Stride frequency higher than 180/min lowered running efficiency in male, but not in female runners. 4) Optimal stride frequency was observed in male runners, table tennis players and swimmers. Optimal stride frequency always coincided with free stride frequency in male subjects, and it was suggested that men without special training can run with the most economical stride frequency. 5) Stride length and stride frequency increased linearly as the running speed increased. Increase in running speed was dependent much more on increase in stride length than that of stride frequency. Contribution of stride frequency to an increase in running speed was more significant in female than male.
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  • Katsuo Fujiwara, Haruo Ikegami
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 241-248
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was designed to investigate the postural control by means of frequency analysis of the swaying movements of various body portions (caput fibulae, lumbale, cervicale and vertex) during maintaing a quiet standing posture with c1osed stance and eyes opened or closed. The subjects were healthy male students of the university (N=30), aged 18 to 23 years. Body sway was picked up with potentiometers connected to the above mentioned body portions with silk threads. Mean of spectrum amplitudes of the body sway in each frequency band of 0.1-0.5Hz and 0.5-1.0Hz (MSA_0.5 and MSA_1.0) was calcu1ated. The results were summarized as follows: 1) The higher the body portion, the greater was the MSA_0.5 and MSA_1.0. Those values of the body portion below lumbale were greater in lateral direction (LA) than in anterioposterior direction (AP). In the body portion above lumbale, the difference (D) of MSA_0.5 or MSA_1.0 between adjacent body portions for unit height was considerably greater in LA than in AP. These results indicate that the lower body below lumbale is more stable in AP than in LA, while the upper body above 1umbale is more stable in LA than in AP. 2) In the lower body below lumbale, the ratio of D in upper part to that in lower part of adjacencies was smaller in 0.5-1.0Hz than in 0.1-0.5Hz. In the upper body above lumbale this value was smaller in 0.1-0.5 Hz than in 0.5-1.0 Hz. These results suggest that the high frequency component of the body sway is well-controlled and stab1e in the lower body, while the low frequency component of the body sway is well-controlled and stable in the upper body.
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  • Shiro Nakagomi, Masashi Suzuki
    Type: Article
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 249-260
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study reports on the feature of sport experience in relation to the process of athletes' ego identity formation viewed from Erikson's mutua1ity concept. The phases of mutuality was operationally defined as crisis, exploration and commitment. One hundred and sixty-four male college athletes in the physical education department who have been involved in competitive sports since pre-adolescence volunteered as subjects. Two questionnaires were given to these subjects. One of them was a scale of ego identity formation process that was intended to measure the level of three states in the process of the ego identity formation; crisis, exploration and commitment. Then, the level of three states were evaluated by the degree of subjects' interaction with thirteen areas in their life space (Lebenswelt); six sporting, six daily life and one area in common. The construction of this scale was based on the idea of Marcia's identity status aporoach and the operational definition of "mutuality". The other questionnaire was Endou's ego identity scale, used to estimate the degree of identity achievement. The principal findings were as follows: 1) The athletes have strong ego-involvement in sporting areas, and the area of athletic performance consistently receives especially high scores in all three states. 2) The level of exp1oration and commitment were significantly lower than that of crisis in the areas of "team-mates", "continuation in athletics", "coaches", and "sex". And the level of exploration was significantly lower than that of crisis and commitment in the areas of "choice of a job" and "life style and values". 3) The level of exploration and commitment appear to be the basis of the sense of ego identity. As for coping with the developmental task, the athlete is involved with almost the same areas as the adolescent in general, i.e., occupation, values, politics, and interpersonal relationship, which contributes to ego identity formation. 4) The areas of athletic performance, significance of their continuation in athletics, and relationship to coaches were found to be important areas for the athletes. However, in these areas development of "mutuality" (Erikson) which contributes to ego identity formation seems to be difficult.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 261-262
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages App6-
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Bibliography
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages Misc1-
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages App7-
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages Cover11-
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    1985 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages Cover12-
    Published: December 01, 1985
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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