The purpose of the present paper is to delive a new viewpoint of "the logic of human body" which would be indispensable to establish "theory of the body for the studies of physical education "referring to M. Maekawa's theory of the body from phenomenological viewpoints. Disputed points are: 1) the reason why Maekawa could not develop his theory of the body as a basic frame of reference for the studies of physical education, 2) his view of mind-body-oneness, and 3) logical relations between his theory of the body and mind-body-oneness. Main findings are as follows: 1) Maekawa could not accomplish his initial intention of establishing the studies of physical education as an independent academic discipline, because his theory of the body which was based on the view of mind-body-oneness did not bestow unique academic characteristics upon the studies of physical education but presented merely a mode of human understandings as a whole. 2) He could not develop his theory of the body into a theoretical framework of systematizing the studies of physical education, because his view of the studies of physical education was originally conceived on the pedagogic basis. 3) As a prerequisite of providing a philosophical basis of the studies of physical education, it was suggested to be essential to establish "theory of the body for the studies of physical education". The theory of the body should be based on "the logic of human body" which places the focus on the human body itself, and the logic of human body means here "the phenomenological logic of body functions" which brings human movement into existence. It was concluded that, the attain Maeakawn's intention, his theory of the body should be re-framed by introducing phemomenological viewpoints of the human body functions.
The purpose of this study was to examine the functional equivalence of movement and kinesthetic imagery in short-term memory experiment using an isometric force task. The dependent variables were the constant error (CE), and the variable error (VE) made by 78 male undergraduate students, who attempted to reproduce a criterion force (15 kg) at delayed (30 sec.) recall test. The 30sec-retention intervals were filled with imaging or performing either the criterion force or the different force to the criterion force (maximum or 70% of maximum). It was predicted that if movement and kinesthetic imagery are functionally equiva1ent, similar recall error should occur at recall. The results showed that imaging different force did not produce a bias comparable to that produced by performing different force (assimilation effect), while imaging and performing different force produced significrint1y higher variability of recall than imaging and performing the criterion force. These findings suggest that kinesthetic imagery is functionally equivalent to actual movement in terms of the VE, but not in terms of the CE. These findings were discussed by a dual-process of interference hypothesis (Ito) which suggests the different interference effects at the central and the peripheral locus.
The purpose of this study was to compare the load-cell dynamometer with the spring dynamometer in the measurement of back strength. Two experiments were designed to investigate the differences and the relationship between the testing methods by use of the said two dynamometers. In experiment 1, six male university students were used. Each subject was tested three times a day with each dynamometer and the same tests were administered on other two days. To analyze the changes in the angles of the shoulder, hip and knee joints, all tests were filmed with 16mm high speed motion camera. In experiment 2, 13 male subjects were used to examine the relationship between the length of the chain of the load-cell dynamometer and the back strength recordings. The angle of the hip joint was controlled by changing the length of the chain in this experiment. The differences between the recordings by use of load-cell dynamometer and by use of the spring dynamometer among six subjects in experiment l and 13subjects in experiment 2 were examined. The reasons for the difference were further investigated by analyzing the body motion applying 16 mm film analyser when changing the degree of the hip joint in testing. The results were summarised as follows: 1) The mean strength measured by the load-cell dynamometer was lower than that by the spring dynamometer for all subjects in experiment 1 and eleven subjects in experiment 2. 2) The changes in the angles of the shoulder and the hip joint from the set position to the position of maximal strength were larger for the spring dynamometer. 3) The majority of subjects obtained greater strength when the chain was longer than the standard length. 4) The relationship between the back strength recordings by use of load-cell and by use of the spring dynamometer was not consistent, because individual differences were found to be rather large.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the no-feedback muscle activity on awarenss of the muscle tension as well as the performance during tension c6ntrol training with the use of electromyographic (EMG) feedback. To relax the agonist (biceps) muscles and to contract the antagonist (triceps) during arm flexion, ten undergraduate male students were tested before, during and after continuous visual feedback from each muscle activity. In addition, the no-feedback muscle (deltoideus and supinator) activity was recorded in the same way with the feedback muscle activity. The experiment consisted of three sessions: pretraining (10 trials), feedback training (4 blocks of 10 trials), and testing (10 trials). Immediately after each trial in the pretraining and test sessions, the subject was asked to guess whether the control level of both muscle tensions increased or decreased, relative to the immediate preceding trial. The following results were obtained: 1) In the mean EMG of the triceps and the mean proficiency of muscle control, significant differences among blocks were found in the feedback training session, while the test session showed a significantly greater value than that of the pretraining session. 2) In the no feedback muscle, though there were no significant EMG differences among blocks of the training session and between the pretraining and test sessions, the EMG proved a significantly greater correlation not with the proficiency of muscle control but with the feedback muscle EMG. 3) The probability of correct guessing between adjacent trials in the test session was significantly greater than that in the pretraining session. 4) A significant interaction was found between overall subjective gussing and the actual activities of the no-feedback muscle in the test session. These results were discussed with the implications of the application for EMG feedback training to the motor task.
Swimming performance in males is superior to that in females at college level. It is supposed that this phenomenon is based on the developmental differences of various physical factors between males and females. The present study was designed to examine the sexual differences of physique, musclar strength, flexibility, neuromuscular function, cardio-respiratory function and elementary swimming skill in 245well-trained college male and female swimmers. The main findings are summarized as follows: 1) Physique elements except of body fat, muscular strength, neuromuscular function besides agility of the legs, and cardio-respiratory function were found to be significhnt1y superior in male swimmers as compared with female swimmers. In contrast, flexibility except of trunk rotation in female swimmers was much greater than that in male swimmers. Concerning elementary swimming skill, skills of under water swim and direction change swim c1osely related to speed were significantly better in male swimmers, although floating skill closely to related buoyancy was significantly better in female swimmers. From examining of the above-findings, it is inferred that major factors which produced the sexual difference of swimming performance were based on the developmental difference of muscular strength and cardio-respiratory function. 2) Swimmers seemed to possess superior abilities such as physique, muscular endurance, flexibility, and lung capacity as compared with their non-swimmers of same age level. 3) In analyzing different swimming strokes, it seemed that the sexual differences of physique aspects (i.e., body linearity, both girth, and lean body mass) were greater in individual medley stroke, but smaller in breast stroke. Concerning crawl and back strokes, significant differences between male and female swimmers were found in flexibility of trank extension, trunk lateral flexion, and so forth. And it seemed that the developmental balance of flexibility of each physical joint was different between male and female swimmers in every swimming stroke. Significant differences between male and female were also shown only in butterfly and individual strokes for glide skill, and in every stroke except of butterfly for treading water skill. The sexual differences of these skills appeared to be different in each swimming stroke.
The onset and prevention of occupational low back pain, particularly the acute causality low back pain which occured during work has called attention of the current investigators. In the recent years, appearance of non-causality low back problem with gradual increase of pain at the back and waist of the body has been observed without any clear indication of causality factors. Increase in the non-causality low back pain have called the national attention, too, as it became to be pronounced as an occupational disease. Business enterprises where low back pain is often complained, special medical examination is administered. However, effective evaluation method of reliable diagnosis is to be developed yet. The relationship between appearance of low back pain and physical fitness results among 93 male garbage collectors in certain M-city was investigated. Obtained results were as follows: 1. From a questionnaire survey among the workers, the appearance of low back pain in garbage collectors in the past mongth was found to be 49.5%. The rate of past low back pain experience ,55.9% was higher than the former. 2. Regarding the present condition, the pain seemed to be rated as "light", but many complain its chronic nature, suggesting the necessity of administrative considerations to cope with such chronic low back pain. 3. In the physical fitness recordings, values in trunk hyper-extention and single-leg staning with eyes open decreased with age. The values of trunk hyper-extention and back strength were lower than those of national standard in the same age group. 4. No relationships were found between physical fitness and appearance of low back pain in the past month. However, decline of the fitness level particularly at the low back along with increase of work experience years was observed among those who complain such low back pain.