This thesis intends to analyze the physical practice and its philosophical background of a Japanese in the 19th century, when the Western physical education was not yet introduced. The means of this analytical research was through three letters written by Shoin Yoshida, 22years-old samurai, in 1851 and addressed respectively to his father, uncle, and the elder brother. It was found, through reading these three letters, that Shoin Yoshida practiced horse-riding and kenjutsu, Japanese art of fencing, ev6ry two days, and that, he walked 4 kilometers to visit his masters in strategics and Chinese philosophy. He maintained his health in good condition by his hard physical practice. The first finding is that people of samurai cast had acquired their own method of physical practice before the Western physical education was introduced into Japan. The second point that this thesis emphasizes is that Shoin Yoshida practiced this theoretical physical practice as his duty, i.e. elective obligation for self-training. For Shoin Yoshida, to maintain good health was a moral of human being, and was "Filial Piety" (孝) to the parents. The letter to his father improves his belief. The health viewpoints of Shoin Yoshida were strongly reflected by Confucian Analects.
High school sport team members experience various sociological ambivalence in process of involving themselves in sport teams. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate their value orientations of sport team activities through the analyses of their ambivalence transformation. The data was obtained by sequential surveys conducted in June and November 1984 on 486 junior and senior high school sport team members, and multi-dimensional analyses (factor analysis and Hayashi's quantification theory II and III) were applied to the data. Main findings are as follows: 1) The ambivalence of competition vs. cooperation is easy to be transformed, while those of egoism vs. altruism and dogmatism vs. literalism tend to be continuous. 2) Continuous ambivalence for boys is submission to authority, and sanction for girls. 3) Submission to senior members is the consistent ambivalence determinant for both junior and senior high school sport team members. 4) Samples are devided into four types of group according to the presence (Yes or No) of am-bivalence respectively at the lst and 2nd survey period; deviant. group (Y-Y), socialized group (Y-N), becomming deviant group (N-Y) and adapted group (N-N). Main ambivalence determinant of deviant group is coach, and that of becomming deviant group is submission to senior team members. It is estimated that the ambivalence of deviant group consists of five types of value orientation, i.e., dogmatism, egoism, humanism, totalitarianism and idealism.
Developmental patterns of several physical fitness elements in adolescent boys were investigated in reference with growth patterns of standing height. The data used consisted of 5 sets of the 7-year longitudinal data of 1969, '70, '71, '72 and '73 enrollments. The mean and standard deviation were determined in each elements with 5 sets of longitudinal data pooled. Then these statistics were used to determine the 10-steps growth and developmental channel for evaluating the individual growth and developmental status in each age. Then, all data were converted to the channel scores using these channels. Results were as follows ; 1) By the channel method, growth patterns of standing height were classified into 3 patterns, i.e., early maturing, consistent and late maturing types. 2) Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the t-value matrix which was calculated between the patterns of 15 elements. For consistent type, 4 clusters were produced, while 5 clusters each were found for early maturing and late maturing types. 3) Developmental pattern curves of each cluster were drawn with the standard scores. With several exceptions, a certain increasing tendency could be observed in consistent and late maturing types. In the early maturing type , most of clusters showed the decreasing tendencies. 4) Between the groups with different growth pattern of standing height, the elements showing the same developmental pattern were not always same, and also each elements did not always show any identical pattern.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the difference in the force and EMG characteristics between flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow and knee joints. The subjects in this study were six healthy adults (male, 22.8±3.1 years). Each subject was asked to perform isometric flexion and extension for elbow and knee at each force level of 25, 50 and 75% of his maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and then to sustain them at the three different force levels to exhaustion. The surface EMG was recorded from the m. biceps brachii, m. triceps brachii, m. biceps femoris and m. rectus femoris. An endurance time, IEMG and the reduction ratio of the mean power frequency (MPF) for each second were computed from the recorded EMG at each of the three different force levels. Results were summarized as follows: 1) With an increase in the normalized force, greater normalized IEMGS were observed in the flexor muscles than in the extensor muscles for both arm and leg. Differences between flexor and extensor muscles in the normalized IEMGs were all significant throughout the three different levels of the percent MVC force. 2) Flexor muscles had a longer endurance time than extensor muscles for both arm and leg. For the arm a significant difference was found at each of 25 and 50% MVC force levels. For the leg, on the other hand, a significant difference was observed at each of 25 and 75% MVC force levels. 3) The reduction ratio of the MPF for each second in the extensor muscles was significantly larger than that in the flexor muscles at each of the three different levels of the percent MVC force. Within the limitation of the study, it can be concluded that physiological characteristics of the flexor muscles in the arm and leg are different from those of the extensor muscles. Such a difference may be due to . the effects of a different muscle fiber composition in the extensor and flexor muscles.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate directly and quantitatively the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA) in man during exercise and to reveal the effects of static muscle contraction on MSA by applying the microneurographic technique. MSA was recorded by a tungsten microelectrode inserted percutaneously and manually into the muscle nerve fascicle of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa of the subject in supine position. The sustained muscle contraction was performed for five minutes using handgrip, at a tension of 20% of maximal voluntary contraction which was determined before the experiment at the same position. Subjects were six healthy male students. MSA could be recorded in all subjects. The average MSA, expressed as burst numbers per minute (BR), were 12.8 (±3.2; SD) bursts/min (ranging 9.3 to 18.6) at rest in supine position. During sustained muscle contraction, MSA increased by 25% at first minute of exercise compared to the value at rest before contraction. The activity increased more and more with the duration of muscle contraction. At fifth minute of the contraction, MSA increased by 165% of the value at rest. At the same time, mean blood pressure became elevated with the duration of muscle contraction. These results indicate that the elevation of blood pressure during sustained muscle contraction may be, at least in part, due to the increase of MSA, which induces vasoconstriction of the inactive muscular beds. In conclusion, microneurographic technique is a valuable method to evaluate the sympathetic nerve activity during exercise. Using this technique, it was demonstrated that the muscle sympathetic activity increased gradually during the muscle contraction until the end of the exercise, even when relatively low tension (20% MVC) of the sustained handgrip was loaded.
The present study has been undertaken aiming at the elucidation of the effect of growth and sex-related difference on metabolic properties of skeletal muscle in rat hindlimb. The slow soleus (SOL)and the fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were obtained from Wistar strain rats aged from 3 to 75 weeks after birth. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The male rats, after 6 weeks of age, showed significantly higher increase in the body weight than the female. 2. The muscle weight gradually increased until 25 or 30 weeks of age in both sexes. The muscle weights of the SOL and EDL in female were always smaller than those in male at any period of age. 3. The glycolytic enzyme activity, obtained biochemically, in the EDL rised slowly with growth, but not in the SOL. The mean activity of oxidative enzyme in the SOL dropped with growth. There was a significant difference in oxidative enzyme activity between SOL and EDL of younger rat (up to 12 weeks of age). Beyound 12 or 15 weeks of age, however, the oxidative enzyme activity in the SOL dropped to the level of that obtained in EDL. 4. In the rats younger than l0 to 20 weeks, the glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activities of both muscles were greater in female rats than in ma1e. This inclination was reversed after the age of 20 weeks. It is concluded that the properties of glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activities in rat skeletal muscle are influenced by growth. A sex-related variation in the enzyme activity exists especially in the EDL muscle.