Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 32 , Issue 1
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Yasuo Yuasa
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 1-10
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Hideaki Ohkubo
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 11-24
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the present paper is, based upon the documents at Iwate Prefectural Record Office, to clarify how Shuzo Hara, who graduated from Taiso Denshujo (National Gymnastics School) developed his physical education activities in Iwate prefecture from 1881 through 1884. During that period, Shuzo Hara was a gymnastics instructor of Iwate Normal School and Iwate Prefectural Middle School. He became, at a later date, a professor at Taiso Denshujo and contributed to the training of physical educators in Japan. His various activities in physical education in Iwate prefecture caused his later success, and his activities are considered now as a typical case of indicating what were expected and requested to Taiso Denshujo graduates who were sent to various districts all over Japan. Shuzo Hara's main achievements of physical education activities in Iwate prefecture were as follows. 1. Reconstruction of a previous dining hall into a gymnasium of 24 by 75 ft. in area at Iwate Normal School in 1881. 2. Purchase of gymnastics training apparatus and equipment indicated below. 1) light gymnastics apparatus: 80 dumbbells, 62 clubs, 100 wands and 60 wooden rings for both Iwate Normal School and Iwate Prefectural Middle School. 2) measuring apparatus: 2 spirometers and 2 muscular strength gauges. 3) 7 footballs (2 were lost in a fire). 4) equipment for gymnastics (Geratturnen) and outdoor games: 2 sets of parallel bars and 2 swings. 5) several books on physical education and games. 3. Formulation of rules for the regular curricular activities at Iwate Prefectural Middle School and for the general use of the gymnasium. 4. Execution of short training courses of gymnastics for primary school teachers in Iwate prefecture. In View of the fact stated above, Shuzo Hara should be called "father of physical education in Iwate prefecture" along with Hisayosi Kano, who was a head master of Iwate Normal School from 1877 to 1879.
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  • Hajime Kishimoto
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 25-35
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Dieser Artikel geht aus dem Interesse fur das Fach Sport der DDR heraus, in dem korperliche Grundausbildung als Hauptziel verfolgt wird, und analysiert, wie das "Sportabzeichenprogramm" in den Zielen und Ausbildungsbereichen des Faches Sport zusammengefugt ist. Infolgedessen tritt es hauptsachlich folgendes deutlich hervor: 1. Die in den Abzeichen-Stufen Gold, Silber und Bronze vom Sportabzeichenprogramm der DDR geforderten Normative machen die erreichbaren Leistungsziele fur korperliche Grundausbildung wahrend der ganzen 12 Jahre der schul-und Berufsausbildungspflicht aus. 2. Die Niveaus "1 Punkt" der Grundbedingungen und Zusatzbedingungen vom Sprortabzeichen-programm der DDR sind die niedrigeren erreichbaren Leistungsziele, im Vergleich mit den Leistungszielen der ahnlichen sportmotorischen Teste in den anderen sozialistischen Landern, z.B. UdSSR und China. Diese leichten Leistungsziele regen, scheint mir, sogar die sportlich schwachen Kinder und Jugendlichen zur korperlichen Bildung und zum Sporttreiben effektiver an. 3. Die Losung des Sportabzeichenprogramms "Bereit zur Arbeit und zur Verteidigung der Heimat" stimmt mit dem sozialen Ziel vom Fach Sport der DDR uberein. 4. Alle Bedingungen der Disziplinen vom Sportabzeichenprogramm der DDR werden als die Inhalte der abgesehenen Fahigkeiten sowie Leistungskontrollen in den ganzen Ausbildungsbereichen des Faches Sport konkret dargestellt. 5. In der DDR wird der Besitz des Sportabzeichens bei der Festlegung der Jahreszensur berucksichtigt. Dadurch angeregt, konnen die betreffenden Schuler im Sportunterricht weit mehr positiv werden. 6. Auch in der sportlichen Selbstbetatigung, die das Fach Sport in der DDR unterstutzt, ist das Sportabzeichenprogramm in Verbindung mit dem Sportunterricht breit und weit durchgefuhrt, um der allseitigen korperlichen Entwicklung der Kinder und Jugendlichen dienen zu konnen. Die Ideen und Durchfuhrungen vom Sportabzeichenprogramm der DDR, wie aus den oben skizzierten Betrachtungen herauskommt, konnen auch bei uns Japan, trotz der Verschiedenheiten des sozialen Systems, zur Praktika der Korpererziehung viel Beitrage machen, die in den Kindern und Jugendlichen die selbstandigen Fahigkeiten in der korperlichen Bildung und am Sporttreiben in Zukunft entwickeln soll.
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  • Shigeaki Ohta, Komei Hattori
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 37-42
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The penalty kick contact point between the instep and soccer ball was examined in 36 male students who belonged to college soccer clubs. They were calssified into 3 groups according to soccer skill level (expert, intermediate, novice). The results are summarized below: 1. The contact point with the ball for the expert and intermediate groups was lower and more lateral in comparison with the novice group. 2. The angle between the long axis of the instep (P-Q line) and the ground was 39.4±9.65 degrees for the expert group. Furthermore, as skill level decreased the angle increased; 46.2±7.33 and 52.8±8.46 degrees for the intermediate and novice groups, respectively. 3. The ball point which is the intersection of the equator and midsagittal line on the ball surface, was projected at the lateral and distal part of the medial cuneiform bone for the expert and intermediate groups and the midshaft part of the second metatarsal bone for the novice group. It was concluded that specification of the contact point and angle between the instep and soccer ball will contribute to the improvement of the skills of novice soccer players.
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  • Akihiko Ishihara, Shigeru Katsuta
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 43-48
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The effects of aging on the total number of muscle fibres and dominant alpha motor neurons were studied among three experimental age groups. HRP (horseradish peroxidase) was injected into the tibialis anterior (fast twitch type) and soleus (slow twitch type) muscles of Wistar strain albino female rats aged 10, 65, 135 weeks, to be labelled retrogradely the motor neurons of the spinal cord. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Fast twitch (FOG, FG) muscle fibres decreased at 65 weeks. 2. Slow twitch (SO) muscle fibres and alpha motor neurons (large size and low oxidative enzyme activity) decreased at 135 weeks. The present study suggests that the decrease of muscle fibres in the early stage until 65 weeks is a result of selective atrophy, and this quantitative alteration may be due to disturbances of neuromuscular junction or to degeneration of the fibres themselves. On the other hand, the decrease of muscle fibres from 65 to 135 weeks may be due to regressive change, such as decrease of dominant motor neurons in the spinal cord.
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  • Hirohisa Wakita, Shiro Mizutani, Kyonosuke Yabe
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 49-56
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    It has been observed that the premotion silent period appears just before a rapid voluntary movement. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by one of the inhibitory discharge from the central nervous system. On the other hand, the silent period is also observed when muscles are relaxed by counter movement. The present study was designed to compare some physical performances of both silent periods. Twenty healthy males aged 18-24 years were subjected to a series of experiment. They were asked to maintain the posture of standing with flexed knee joint at about 50 degrees on the force plate. In the first condition, they were requested to extend their knee joint responding to a flashing lamp as quickly as possible (Non-counter movement). In the second condition, they were asked to extend knee joint as quickly as possible with counter movement to a flashing lamp. The EMG activities of M. rectus femoris, M. vastus lateralis, M. vastus medialis and M. biceps femoris were recorded using bipolar surface electrodes. Force curve from a force plate and electrogoniogram were recorded simultaneously. The following results were obtained from this experiment. 1) The rate of appearance in complete silent period was higher on the counter movement (M. rectus femoris: 37.8%, M. vastus lateralis: 81.6%, M. vastus medialis: 59.7%) than on the non-counter movement (28.2%, 57.6%,46.5%, respectively). 2) The latency of silent period was significantly later on the counter movement (M. vastus lateralis:132.8 msec, M. vastus medialis: 135.5 msec) than on the non-counter movement (119.4 msec, 116.4 msec,respectively). 3) The duration of silent period was significantly longer on the counter movement (M. vastus lateralis: 100.0 msec, M. vastus medialis: 96.6 msec) than on the non-counter movement (40.9 msec, 41.9 msec, respectively). 4) No significant difference in the rate of tension rise was found between the counter movement (3.7kg/msec) and the non-counter movement (2.7 kg/msec). 5) The peak value of the force curve was significantly greater on the counter movement (173.0 kg)than on the non-counter movement (141.2 kg). It is suggested from these results that the silent period of the counter movement delayed the reaction time (latency and duration) and increased the muscular strength in comparison with the premotion silent period.
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  • Sung Kang Hi, Haruo Ikegami
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 57-65
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of different intensities of cycling exercise on airway resistance (Raw), thoracic gas volume (Vtg), and specific airway conductance (sGaw) were studied in 7 normal male subjects using a body plethysmograph. A pressure type body plethysmograph having the internal volume of about 1,100 liters was made and a remote controlled bicycle ergometer was equipped in the plethysmograph to be able to carry out exercise in the box. Exercise of three different loads (300 kpm/min, 600 kpm/min, and 900 kpm/min) was performed at a pedaling rate of 50 rpm for five min each. After base line measurement at rest, Raw, Vtg, and sGaw were measured intermittently during exercise and recovery period. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Raw decreased during exercise to 70-80% of the base line. 2. The decrease of Raw was larger at the first minute of the severe exercise than in the light or moderate exercises and became smaller with time of exercise. This trend was also found in the light and moderate exercises with indistinct degree. 3. Raw which decreased during exercise returned to the base line level at the early recovery period and thereafter maintained a little lower value than the base line. 4. Vtg increased during exercise and the larger the intesity of exercise the longer the time returning to the base line after exercise. 5. The increase of sGaw during exercise amounted to 111-137% of the base line at the early moment and became smaller with time of exercise. This tendency was more distinct in the severe exercise than in the light or moderate exercises. The discussion of these results suggests that the changes in Raw and sGaw during and after exercise were basically resulted from the antagonistic action between the change in autonomic balance and the augmented ventilation. Also the unproportionate relationship between the degree of changes in Raw and sGaw and the intensity of exercises can be interpretted by above mentioned mechanism.
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  • Koki Kudo
    Type: Article
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 67-76
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The data obtained by former studies on the cross-modal matching of visual (V) and kinesthetic (K) information suggested that the target tend to be undershot in V-K matching condition, whereas overshot in K-V matching condition. The main purpose of this study was to verify these trends. For the target reproduction, location and distance cues were separated in the present experiment. The results were as follows: 1) Irrespective of available cues condition, mean of constant error (CE) of V-K matching condition was significantly different from that of K-V matching condition. 2) Symmetrical pattern of CE in two cross-modal matching condition, that is, undershooting of V-K matching and overshooting of K-V matching, was observed in the condition where both cues were available. 3) In contrast to the above findings, asymmetrical patterns of CE were observed in the conditions where either location or distance cue was available. In the location cue condition, the tendency of undershooting of V-K matching was not so strong as that in both cues available condition. On the other hand, K-V matching showed none of the tendency of overshooting in the distance cue condition. These results of CE and those of other measures used in the present experiment were discussed in relation to the model of intersensory integration for vision and kinesthesis developed by Connolly and Jones (1970).
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  • Type: Appendix
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Type: Cover
    1987 Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 01, 1987
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
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