The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of the exercise on elastic characteristics of the aorta in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR and Wistar control rats (WCR) of both sexes were used in this study. Male and female SHR were respectively divided into two groups (exercised; Ex and non-exercised; nE) at 6 weeks of age: SHREx (male), SHRnE (male), SHREx (female) and SHRnE (female). Exercised SHR were placed in cages with rotating wheels capable of voluntary running. After 24 weeks of feeding, values of pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured on aortas. The results were as follows: 1) Body weights of male SHREx were lower than those of male SHRnE; whereas female SHREx were heavier than female SHRnE. Food comsumptions of SHREx groups tended to be more than those of SHRnE groups. 2) Female SHREx showed greater running activity than male SHREx. There was no constant difference in systolic blood pressure obtained by an indirect tail-cuff method between SHREx and SHRnE in both sexes. 3) PWV values of male SHREx were significantly lower than those of male SHRnE. In the females, there was no difference between SHREx and SHRnE. 4) Media thickness rates (v.s. diameter) of thoracic aortas of SHREx were significantly lower than those of SHRnE in both sexes. These results suggest that voluntary exercise is effective to improve elastic characteristics of the aorta especially in male SHR.
Some differences in step rate-running economy relationship between male and female runners were reported in our previous paper. The aim of the present study was to verify the possibility of contribution of running form as a cause of the sex difference. Five male and five female runners underwent treadmill running and cycling at a step rate from 150 to 200 per minute with a given step length of 80 or 100 cm in the former and A given load of 0.5 kp in the latter. Measurements of Vo2 and heart-rate were made in a steady state of each bout of exercise. At a lower step rate (below 170 steps/min), no difference in step rate.economy relationship was observed between men and women. The economy dropped with decreasing step rate in running, but not in cycling. At a higter step rate (above 180 steps/min), the same sex difference in step rate-economy relationship was found in both running and cycling. In men, the drop in economy was observed as step rate increased, but in women, no change was found at any step rate. During cycling, there is little change in center of gravity and movements of limbs with changing step rate. With this in mind, the results suggest that the sex difference in step rate-running economy relationship is due to not running form but other factors.
In recent times, literary works have come to be considered a useful means of assessing sport. Through literature it is possible to analyse contemporary society more realistically than by the social sciences, and literature tends to show the time and society more vividly by its free imagination. To explore sport through literature seems to be most suitable approach, Before that it is necessary to assess the meaning of sport literature. The purpose of the present paper is to examine "the posibilities of sport literature", that is the question to what degree the idea of sport can be put into words, and what kind of value sport literature has. In this paper, "Le Sport" by the French writer Jean Giraudoux published in 1928 is analyzed. By reading this work to reconstruct the image of sport envisaged by Giraudoux and interpreting some paragraphs, the main findings are summarized as follows: (1) the possibilities of putting sport into words depend on both the presentation of the sport image by the writer, and on the sympathy with it by the reader who has also his own sport image in his mind. (2) Sport literature has two functions for readers. ・ The function as "aesthetic art" which evokes the reader's sympathy ・ The function as "text" which stimulates the reader's intellectual research of the significance of sports or the value of sports "Language experience of sport" which has these functions suggests that by further research a new view point of sport might be discovered.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the tackling distance estimated by a soccer player at the intercollegiate level. The meaning of the tackling distance is the longest distance between a ball and a tackler in which he is sure to tackle the ball successfully. Skilled players (N = 5) and unskilled players (N = 5) were selected among the Fukushima Univ. Soccer Team according to their ability of tackling. Each of the subjects was required to tackle a ball, and the tackling distance and the movement time (MT) taken from the initial movement of his feet to his touch of the ball with the tackling foot were measured. The opponent's reaction time (RT) was also measured in order to be compared with MT. The results were as follows: 1) The tackling distance of the skilled group was longer than that of the unskilled group. 2) When the tackler's MT was compared with the opponent's RT, the former was shorter than the latter, and this was remarkable in the case of the unskilled group. 3) But there was no difference between the two groups regarding the probability of success in the practical one-against-one tackling trials. 4) These results may suggest that there were some differences between two groups in the action prior to the main tackling action, and also the tackling action of the unskilled group was more easily anticipated by the opponent.
The purpose of this study was to review literature on group cohesiveness in sport research and to reconsider the concept of group cohesion. The review was made from three points of view: (1) experimental group or not, (2) what kind of scale was used to measure group cohesiveness, (3) What kind of sport group was studied. In general, inconsistent results in the previous studies of cohesiveness in sport group were considered to come from three causes. The first was the cause must have come from categorization of sport tasks being studied, second being the concept of cohesiveness itself, and third, the cause-effect explanations. In this study, discussions were made on the latter two causes. As the result it was found that there were inconsistencies in cohesiveness and performance relationship, and that these caused from the operational concept of cohesiveness and the lack of valid meausures. It was suggested that group cohesiveness was redefined as the total field of force which acts on members to attract in the group and to resist against the force that works to break down the group. Operationally, the force has two dimension; structure, one is interpersonal attractive force and the other is task-oriented one. Some ideas are offered for future research.