Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 33 , Issue 1
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Hideo Tatano, Kanji Kotani, Koichi Kiku
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 1-13
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    As a preliminary step of composing the concept of sport, the meaning and significance of sport as a social institution was discussed through reconsidering J.W. Loy's five papers on sport paradigm. After examining his papers following problems were pointed out. 1) As a criterion of classifying play, game and sport, the dichotomy of competition and physical prowess is too narrow while the institutionalized level is too wide. Since institutional pattern is recognized both in sports and games, it can not be a proper criterion of classifying them. It is not clear that how expressive and instrumental aspects, as well as play and work, of his paradigm are to be integrated and sublated. 2) Loy's definition of institution is still ambiguous. It is used in such various meanings as group, organization, social system, and situation. It should be specified as a norm system. 3) As his theory of sport as an institution excessively emphasizes the negative aspects of reified and alienated sport, his theory based on humanistic views is confined to presuppose pre-established harmony in sport which points up only positive and autonomous aspects. 4) The function of sports should be distinguished from that of sport as an institution, but he confuses them and restricts these functions too narrowly. It was concluded that sport should neither be contrasted with social realities nor be considered to be subsumed by a paramount reality. In order to analyze the simultaneity of the subjective and objective aspects of sports and the expressive and instrumental functions of sport it should conversely be understood that sport is one of the multiple realities and sport constructs a multiple reality in itself.
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  • Shuji Yamashita, Shinichi Demura
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 15-26
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Sport innovation is defined as an idea for doing sport in a way different from what it used to be done. The diffusion studies on innovations like this will provide valuable aids for sport administrators or marketers who are concerned with how to launch new sport services most efficiently. The theoretical purpose of the investigation was to analyze and describe the mechanism through which a sport innovation must pass before it is accepted. Operationally stated, the objective of the present study was to examine variables determining the rate of adoption of swimming school, a new form of educationing children which has grown from 1970's to 1980's in Japan, by clarifying the relationship between certain background variables of a new sport consumption behavior among the parents and their length of the innovation-decision period. Shortening the innovation-decision period is one of the main methods of speeding the diffusion of an innovation. The findings are based on a sample of 306 parents with the schoolchild who is attending swimming school selected from elementary schools in Fukui Prefecture. The data were collected by administering a questionnaire comprising items representing the operational definitions of the variables. All data were collected in the spring of 1986. The statistical techniques employed were factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and discriminant analysis. The main results are summarized below: 1) The parents who have been involved in sport under the favorable conditions during their childhood, can shorten the time required to pass through the decision process about sport innovation. On the other hand, the less favored parents require a longer innovation-decision period. 2) The parents who have a longer innovation. decision period are more highly interconnected in the communication networks than those who have a shorter innovation-decision period. 3) The degree of utilizing channels of communication or credibility in these sources is likely to be closely connected with the parents who have a longer innovation-decision period. This study was supported in part by a research grant from the Ministry of Education in Japan.
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  • Seon-eung Kim, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 27-38
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of present paper was to examine not only the general developmental trend related to both the quantitative and qualitative changes in the fundamental movement skills of children between 3.0 and 7.5 years old, but also the developmental curve pattern and relationship between these changes. The result were as follows: 1) The quantitative change in the running movement skill (25 m dash) showed a nearly linear developmental trend. In addition, the qualitative change also revealed the same tendency as that of quantitative one. Particularly, it could be inferred that nearly 33.4% of boys and 11.3% of girls aged 7.5 would show matured running pattern. 2) Both the boy and girl showed almost linear developmental tendency in terms of the quantitative change in the jumping movement skill (Standing long jump). It could be also inferred that 35.2% of boys and 12.9% of girls aged 7.5 would reach matured jumping pattern. Especially, there was a remarkable developmental trend in 6 years of age with respect to the quantitative change, when being admitted into the primary school. 3) The quantitative change in the throwing movement skill (tennis ball throwing for distance) revealed that the boy showed a distinguished developmental tendency as they grew older, while the girl did not show a remarkable developmental trend. The qualitative change also showed a nearly similar tendency to the quantitative one. Then, it could be inferred that 28.8% of boys aged 7.5 would reach a matured throwing pattern, but no girl would reach a matured level. 4) For running, jumping and throwing movement skills, a certain close relationship was found between the quantitative and qualitative changes, except for the girl's throwing movement skill. This was very likely to suggest that the coordination plays a very important role in performances of these fundamental movements. 5) For the running and jumping movement skills, a high degree of agreement was found in the developmental curve pattern between the quantitative and qualitative changes. However, for throwing movement skill, the boy showed a higher degree of agreement of the developmental curve pattern than that of the girl.
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  • Shoko Kawabe, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 39-49
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The present study was designed to investigate the coordination of force output on the basis of the anticipation. We measured fractionated reaction times to the regularly alternating serial visual stimuli. Subjects performed the right elbow flexion movements weighted by light and heavy loads alternately. We examined the responses caused by unexpected break of the regularity of the stimulus and the load (feinting stimulus). Premotor times and muscle activities on EMGs were discussed in terms of switching of force output in a muscle. The results may be summarized as follows: 1) Premotor time (PMT) to the regularly alternating stimulus (RAS) was shorter than that in simple reaction time. This fact suggests that the subjects anticipate the kind and timing of the next stimulus because of the alternative and periodic stimuli. 2) Responses to the feinting stimuli (FS) were characterized by biphasic burst patterns on both biceps and triceps EMGs. There was the first burst of activity followed by silent period, and then each muscle became active again. This biphasic pattern was observed in 20% of the responses to FS. 3) When the biphasic burst pattern was not observed on EMGs, PMT to FS was lengthened in comparison with that to RAS. 4) The first burst phase on EMG was regarded as the error response caused by unexpected stimulus, and the second burst phase as the corrected response. 5) The silent period results from a time lag between cancelation of the executing program and execution of new corrected program. 6) PMT for the heavy load was longer than that for the light load under the simple reaction condition. However, there was no effect of force output on PMTs to both RAS and FS.
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  • Kazuo Oishi, Hiroshi Yoshigi, Takashi Nigorikawa, Nobuyuki Muramoto
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 51-59
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Osamu Aoyagi
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 61-67
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    One of the most important points in studying factorial structures of motor ability is the selection of the factorial model. In the previous studies, certain models for working hypotheses were often applied spontaneously. However, to continue developing research activities of this type, reasonable logics should be provided for selection of factorial models. Therefore, in the current study which intends to review the intellectual ability in relation to motor ability structures, classification of factorial models and identification of unique and controversial points of each respective study were discussed. Regarding the factorial models which have been developed to account for the structure of intellectual ability, determination of any specific models that are most suitable to account for motor ability structure was as a result, unavailable. On this problem more theoretical studies in the area of health and sports sciences may be quite necessary. However, rather than applying this research technique to intellectual ability structures alone, more unique factorial models to illustrate motor ability structures may be possible.
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  • Mitsugi Ogata, Komei Ikuta, Makoto Inokuma, Yasuo Sekioka, Yosinori Oh ...
    Type: Article
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 69-78
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The skipping is the movement modeled after sprint running. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of skipping training on physical fitness, sprint ability and sprinting form. Nine non-athlete male university students participated in the training consisted of skipping exercises three days per week for eight weeks. The experiment was performed before and after the training period. The experiment was composed of measuring physical fitness and filming 100 m dash. Variables of analysis were: 1) back strength, vertical jump, stepping effeciency while sitting on a chair, 2) maximum anaerobic power, 3) isokinetic peak torque and isokinetic endurance of knee extension and flexion, and hip flexion, 4) 100m sprint record, and sprint record in each 20m sections, 5) running velocity, step frequency and step length, 6) thigh angle and angular velocity, and knee angle and angular velocity, 7) time for one step, support time and nonsupport time, 8) locus of ankle around trochanter major. Results were as follows: 1. Factors of physical fitness such as back strength, maximum anaerobic power and isokinetic peak torque were significantly improved after training. 2. 100m sprint record was significantly shortened, due to the increase of step frequency. 3. After training, the maximum running velocity was kept up for a longer period, and running velocity in 80 m to 100 m became remarkably faster. 4. After training, time for one step and nonsupport time were significantly shortened. 5. The knee lift during recovery phase became significantly higher. 6. The angular velocity of thigh of recovery leg became significantly faster. It is concluded that the skipping training for eight weeks improves sprint ability, sprinting form and physical fitness related to sprint running.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 79-84
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 85-
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 87-94
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 95-100
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages App2-
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (30K)
  • Type: Cover
    1988 Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 01, 1988
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (30K)
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