It is important to investigate what is meant by sport, a domain of physical culture, and how these meanings are interpreted by performers and researchers. The purpose of this study was to present a basic frame of reference for discussing symbolic meanings of sports. To gain the purpose, both the possibilities and limitations of interpreting the meanings of sports as texts written by performer's behaviors were examined from a hermeneutic perspective. Procedures adopted were as follows: First, the research trend of hermeneutics of sports was surveyed. Secondly, in order to illustrate the imagery of hermeneutics of sports, the Japan high-school baseball championships at Koshien was interpreted in accordance with the analytic methods of cultural hermeneutics. Thirdly, some problems in those methods were brought into relief. Finally, based upon the framework of Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, it was concluded that the fundamental stance of hermeneutics of sports could be formulated as "hermeneutics of sport is to interpret playtext of sports in accordance with context and in conisideration of metatext". The concept "interpretation" was provided here as follows: 1. It premises an interpreter's Horizont (horizon) subject to Vorurteil (preconception). 2. It is a dialectic relationship between an interpreter and the object of interpretation, i.e., between Zugehorigkeit as nearness and Verfremdung as farness. 3. It is Horizontverschmelzung (fusion of horizon) between an interpreter and the object of interpretation. 4. It needs continual interpretative elaboration conformable to Hermeneutischezirkel (hermeneutic circle). 5. It must interpret sports not as brute facts but as soft data of sports which lie behind the hard data and thrust actually into a performer's behavior. There still remains, however, the problem of verification of interpretation as hermeneutic aporia. It would be necessary to apply hermeneutic methods continually to real sports situations for the further refinement of hermeneutics of sports.
An attempt of indicating a perspective for the systematic arrangement of studies on "sport and politics" was made by examining the contents and methodology of preceding studies concerned. Main results are as follows: 1. As for the total aspect of studies where the relations between sport and other components of social structure are dealt with, it is methodologically adequate to introduce the concept of "institution" which is the unit of social structure. Politics can basically be understood as "policy" which has a certain logical relation with public interests and power. For the analysis of mutual relations between sport and politics standing on the basis of policy, it is inevitable to clarify the meaning of "influence", "relation" and "function". Especially logical improvement of the methodology of functional analysis is indispensable. 2. The concrete domains of the study on "sport and politics" are classified into such five categories as sport policy, sport and political ideology, political functions of sport, sport and social regime, and sport and international relations. After indicating the problems to be solved in terms of the systematic arrangement of the studies in each category, they are mutually related and a guideline for the systematization of studies on "sport and politics" is presented.
The present study was conducted to investigate the determinants of enjoyment in physical education learning and their degrees of influence on pupils from both pupils' and teachers' points of view. The subjects were 358 pupils and 175 teachers from elementary school to senior high school. Both teachers and pupils were presented a list of 60 items representing the reasons of enjoyment pupils might feel in physical education learning, and asked to rate the degree of preference for each reason on a 6-point scale. The results were processed with factor analysis, analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. Main findings were as follows: 1. Factors pupils perceived as the determinants of their enjoyment in physical education learning were "recreation and health", "perceived ability", "teacher's behavior", "self-determination", "perceived control" and "group activity". 2. Pupils Perceived the influence of "perceived ability", "recreation and health", and "group activity" comparatively stronger than the other factors. 3. The factor "perceived control" determined pupils' enjoyment in physical education learning regardless of the school stages. 4. Teachers perceived "teacher's behavior", "recreation and health", "perceived ability", and "perceived control" as the determinants of pupils' enjoyment in physical education learning. 5. Teachers perceived the influence of "recreation and health" and "perceived control" on their pupils comparatively stronger than the other factors. 6. Teachers perceived the influence of all factors excepting "group activity" on pupils' enjoyment in physical education learning lower as pupils' grade increased.
Phasic changes in the agonist facilitation and the antagonist inhibition involved in the initiation of the varying force of active ankle dorsiflexion were investigated in man. H-reflex and reaction time methods were combined. The main findings of this study are summarized as follows: 1) Soleus H-reflexes were very weakly inhibited just before the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) EMG onset. These results were similar to the previous reports of Gottlieb et al. (1970) and Pierrot-Deseilligny and Lacert (1973). 2) Since inhibition of soleus H-reflexes appeared just after the TA EMG onset, this inhibition was closely related to the amount of contraction force of the dorsiflexion movement. These results support the previous report of Kagamihara and Tanaka (1985). 3) The onset of the agonist facilitation (TA) was not modified by the different contraction forces. However, the extent of the facilitation just after the TA EMG onset was closely related to the amount of contraction forces of the dorsiflexion movement, similar to that seen in the inhibition of soleus H-reflexes. 4) The onset of the agonist facilitation shifted to the TA EMG onset when the subjects contracted the soleus muscle (plantarflexion) before dorsiflexion. Those results suggest that the initiation of the inhibition on soleus H-reflexes and of the facilitation on TA H-reflexes in active ankle dorsiflexion might start before the TA EMG onset, but these timings were not affected by the varying force. Differences in the extent of the facilitation and the inhibition for different contraction forces after the TA EMG onset indicate the varying strength of the descending motor commands to the TA α-motoneurons and the Ia inhibitory interneurons from the brain. In sequential ankle extension and flexion, changes in the onset of the TA H-reflex facilitation are interpreted as the effects of the reciprocal inhibition from the soleus muslce on the TA motoneurons.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the moderate intermittent exercise ad a cool-down exercise after a intensive work on lactate disappearance. For this purpose, blood lactate disapperance rate during the moderate intermittent recovery exercise was compared with the continuous recovery exercise of same intensity, using a bicycle ergometer. After three bouts of maximal effort of 1-minute pedaling, all subjects (n=6) performed the following three different recovery treatments for 30 minutes: 1) rest, 2) continuous exercise of 40% VO_2 max, and 3) intermittent exercise consisted of 40% VO_2 max-works for 3 minutes and rest periods for 3 minutes in-between. Blood lactate concentration, heart-rate, gas exchange parameters (VO_2, VCO_2, VE, and R) were measured during recovery period. Blood lactate disappearance rate was significantly faster both in the continuous and the intermittent recovery exercise as compared with that in the resting recovery. The intermittent recovery exercise Was smaller in total work output and work time, and showed a lower heart-rate and VO_2 during exercise compared with the continuous recovery exercise. However, no significant difference between the two recovery exercises was observed in blood lactate concentrations during exercise. This result seems to suggest that the intermittent recovery exercise, consisting of moderate intensity of works and short-term rests, has the equal effect in acceleration of blood lactate disappearance to the continuous recovery exercise of same intensity.
This study was carried out to clarify the physiological effects of swimming training and dietary iron intake on rats. Fifty-seven male 15 weeks old rats were divided into three groups of different diets: low (L),medium (M) or high (H) iron diet. They were fed with the diets and water ad libtum during the experiment. After 4.5 weeks, rats in each diet group were divided into two sub-groups: control (Cr) and trained (Tr) rats. Cr rats were subjected to swimming for 10 minutes 3 days per week for 5 weeks in order to be familiarized with swimming, while Tr rats were trained with swimming for 60 minutes 5 days per Week for 5 weeks. After 5 weeks, Cr and Tr rats were forced to swim until exhaustion for determining their endurance performance. The training tended to increase blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and relative muscle weight (muscle weight/body weight) of soleus in H and M groups except in L. The relative muscle weights of soleus of Cr and Tr groups and Hb concentration of Tr groups tended to be increased with higher iron content in the diet. There was, however, no significant difference in the endurance swimming performance of Cr or Tr group among three dietary groups. These results indiucated that the dietary iron intake with swimming training increased the relative muscle weight of soleus and Hb concentration in blood, but could not improve the swimming performance.