This study was planned to to compare the hearing level of Kendo-Players with that of non-Kendo-Players to make clear whether or not long term practice of Kendo causes hearing loss. Pure-tone audiometry by air conduction was applied to 172 Kendo-Players and 76 non-Kendo-Players with an audiometer (Audiometer AA-69, Audiogram Recorder RE-05, Soundproof Room AT-45, Rion, Japan). Among them, the following cases were excluded from the analysis. 1) Cases who have had medication against tuberculosis. 2) Cases with perforation in the tympanic membranes. 3) Cases with occupational experience of more than a year in noise nuisance. 4) Cases with experience of head phone listening for more than one hour a day, twice a week for at least one year. The thresholds of hearing between 149 Kendo-Players (cases, age: 19-76) and 44 non Kendo-Players (controls' age: 20_78) were analysed to compare mean hearing thresholds between the age groups, and to examine covariance adjusted with age. The dose-response relationship was examined by the partial correlation coefficients controlled by age between the thresholds of hearing and the length of Kendo experience (year) or the total experience hours of Kendo (hour). The rusults showed that the hearing loss of Kendo-players was greater than non-Kendo players, especially at the frequency of 4000 and 8000 Hz in the age group of 30-59 years old. It is supposed that long term practice of Kendo may cause hearing loss. Further study, however, will be needed to re-examine the dose-response relactionship with more carefully selected samples for the epidemiological survey in the future.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether visual acuity improves or deteriorates by the exercise. Exercise was cycle ergometer pedaling for 15 minutes under the load; 20%, 50%, 80% of Maxmum Oxygen Intake of each subject with equal relative load among subjects. Accommodation function,Refraction and CFF (Critical Fusion Frequency) were measured for the investigation of the change of visual acuity. The subjects were 10 males (18-20 yrs) without eye diseases. 1. Visual acuity was deteriorated in all the cases of 20%, 50%, 80% Vo_2 max exercise load. The heavier the load, the more visual acuity deteriorated. Visual acuity recovered gradually after exercise in 20-30 minutes. 2. The heavier the load, the longer the near-point was extended, and recovered in about 20 minutes. 3. Deterioration of visual acuity and recovery process of visual acuity after exercise were similar to the changes of near-point. There was a significant correlation of 0.414 (p<0.05) between deterioration of visual acuity and extension of near-point immediately after exercise. 4. The frequency of accommodation fluctuation of crystalline lens was hardly changed. 5. Refraction (Sphere, Cylinder) was hardly changed. 6. CFF rose with every level of load. The heavier the load became, the higher CFF rose. Based on these reuslts, the main cause of the deterioration of visual acuity was assumed to be deterioration of accommodation function.
This study was to clarify the effects of exercise regimen on body weight reduction by food delivery for overweight men and women. Subjects were overweight adults who were selected as to the criterion of 15% over a stanard body weight [(Stature-100)×0.9]. They were divided into (a) training group (n=7) and (b) control group (n=14) on the basis of Vo_2 max. Diets provided were 1400 kcal/day for males and 1200kcal/day for females by food delivery. Training group was engaged in 5 weeks exercise program which consisted of bicycle ergometer exercise of 30 minutes for six days per week. No significant difference was found in body weight reduction between training and control groups. Fat weight loss, however, in training group was greater than that of control group. On the other hand, there was a greater decrease in LBM for control group. Maximal oxygen intake (ml/min) in training group was kept constant throughout 5 weeks, while a significant decrease was found in control group. Exhaustion time was tended to increase in training group, while it was significantly decreased in control group. It was concluded that calory restricution by food delivery for overweight adults was effective to reduce body weight, and that an aerobic exercise program combined with a weight-reducing dietary regimen not only produced a greater loss of fat, but also prevented decrease of maximal aerobic power compared to a dietary regimen alone.
This study was designed to analyze the spiking motions of international. class players by normalization and averaging of the three dimensional kinematic data, and to provide these information with clarifying the basic volleyball spiking technique. Soviet, Cuban, Polish and Japanese male players who participated in the 1981 World Cup Volleyball Games held in Tokyo were filmed at 100 f. p. s. with two 16mm cinecameras during the games. Twenty.three spikings performed successfully were selected for the analysis, and were digitized from the start of the approach run to the end of the swing in the air. Twenty-four 3 dimensional coordinates for the segment endpoints and ball were computed by the Direct Liner Transformation Method. The kinematic data were obtained from the 3D coordinates. The locations and directions of the CG pathways were different from player to player. Therefore, the 3D frame of reference during the movement phase was specified, where X, Y, Z axises indicate the right-leftward, for-backward, and up-downward directions respectively. After the rotation of the coodinate system on the horizontal plane, the averaged spiking motion from 23 players was obtained by normaliZation and averaging of the displacement data for 21 segment endpoints. The motion seemed to represent the basic volleyball spiking technique, because the analyzed spikings were successful spikings performed by international. class players, where the average finger height at impact was 3.18 m, and the average ball velocity immediately after impact was 22.37 m/s.