In ancient times of Japan, people created various ceremonies in order to operate the holy i.e. supernatural mystic power which brought them the feeling of awe, and play acted an important of the ceremony to manage the holy. By indicating the similarities between play and religion or how play element were located in holy world, Huizinaga tries to suggest that play takes its seat at the central part of holy world. In ancient times of Japan, Mana, or spirit was the holy power of governing the order of universal revolution which is absolutely beyond human control. One of the methods which operated holy power and attached it to things was the incantation of Tamafuri which means play. Universal order was believed to be renewed by attaching spirit to things. Everything in universe has circular rhythm of life and death just as plants repeat their growth and withering with the circulation of four seasons. Life means here cosmos the condition where universal order throbs, while death. means chaos where universal order has aged or stopped. Play successfully functioned to develop the rhythm of life-death-life, namely, cosmos-chaos-cosmos of the circulation of universe by operating spirit. Tamafuri renewed life and regenerated cosmos by expressing the rhythm of universal circulation, cosmos in a broad sense, symbolically. The rhythm of universal circulation settles in the sphere of unconsciousness of human beings as Archetypus, and the rhythm as Archetypus can be felt only through the symbol which appears from Archetypus by withdrawing psychological energy libido to the sphere of unconsciousness. The unconscious rhythm was felt by playing Tamafuri and the rhythm diffused and affected all things in universe. By playing Tamafuri, people in those days felt the attachment of Mana which was the projection of unconsciousness as well as rhythm, and considered that the renewal of life or the regeneration of cosmos was realized.
We investigated the possibility of transformation from slow-twitch fibers into fast-twitch fibers following after the high-intensity interval training. M. soleus and M. gastrocnemius of Wistar male rats were used for histochemical analysis to determine fiber type distribution and two-dimensional electrophoresis to examine myosin light chain. After 16 weeks of the training, hypertrophy of FOG fibers in the peripheral portion of M. gastrocnemius was observed. However, fiber type distribution in M. gastrocnemius and M. soleus was not changed. On the other hand, in molecular level, there was no change in myosin light chain after the training. These results indicate that it is difficult to transform fiber types from slow-twitch into fast-twitch, and to Change isozyme distribution of myosin light Chain by the high-intensity interval training.
In physical education courses, ability to learn sports and/or movement has to be developed, along with movement skill and physical fitness. This competence would depend greatly upon attitudes toward the physical education coursed. Most of the attitude scales, as well as Wear Attitude Inventory, have been inductively developed by the goals of physical education. It is, however, considered that attitude measurment should be dependent on the structure of attitudes among children toward physical education courses. The present study was designed to develop attitude scales for the 3rd and 4th grade children in elementary school using factor analysis, and to confirm its validity as a mean of analyzing the effect of the instruction. The detailed description of the method has been given by Umeno (1980). The results obtained were as follows: 1) The structure of attitudes among the 3rd and 4th grade children in elementary school toward physical education courses could be explained by the following four factars: The first factor could be named "Evaluation" for the instruction of physical education, and the second could be named "Value" for the physical education. Than the third could be named "Pleasure" for physical activities. In addition to the above factors, "Value of Sports Life" was extracted from the second factor in the 4th grade children. 2) In an attempt to construct attitude scales originated in the structure of attitudes among children toward physical education courses, items with the value of more than Mean + S.D. of the absolute values of factor loading were selected. 3) Significant coefficients of Split-half Reliablity were found in "Evaluation" and "Pleasure" scales for 3rd grade children, and in "Evaluation", "Pleasure" and "Value" scales for 4th grade children. 4) In terms of the attitude scales which exhibited higher reliablities, significant negative correlations were observed between attitude scorers at the beginning of a term and the magnitudes of change in the score during the term. 5) Fromthe above results 3) and 4), it was suggested that "Pleasure" and "Evaluation" scales in the 3rd and 4th grade children and "Value" scale in the 4th grade children had the validity as a mean of analyzing the instruction, respectively.
A questionnaire of laterality, which contains seventy items and other four questions that ask the consciousness of laterality of hand, foot, eye, and ear, was given to 123 female students. They were asked to answer on a five point scale. The answers were converted into a three point scale by summing up scales 1 and 2 or scales 4 and 5. Seven items in which more than a third of the subjects answered as impossible or unidentified were omitted in the analysis of this study. Twenty eight items asking hand preference were divided into four categories and tabulated respectively. One of the categories is the movement by one hand. (ex. throwing ball). The items in this category were chosen to identify the handedness. The other three categories contain the items of the movement with both hands. One category is the movement in which the dominant hand (functional hand) is clearly identified. Another is the movement in which the dominant hand is not so clear (ex. the hand which moves forward when newspaper is torn with both hands). The remaining category is the static movement (ex. the upper thumb when hands are folded). Twenty one items asking foot preference were divided into six Categories. These were jumping, starting of running, the movement from static state (ex.leg used for first step), functional foot (ex. writing letters by foot), static movement, and the complicated movement with feet and hands (ex. the foot put on the shoulder of shovel when a hole is dog in the earth). The other items were categorized into three clases, i.e., trunk turining, movement with eyes, and movement with ears. The main purpose of this study was to identify the footendess for the exertion of muscle strength and the footedness for the functional use. In Group H, where the functional foot was asked, many subjects answered the use of right hand for the functional use. It was proven that most subjects use the right foot in functional use as was hypothesized in the author's previous study. The dominant foot for the exertion of muscle strength was determined by the take-off foot for the broad jump and the high jump as was mentioned in the previous study. More than eighty per cent of subjects whose dominant foot for the exertion could be determined answered the same foot when the take-off foot of the hurdle run was asked. This justified the definition of dominant foot for the exertion of muscle strength mentioned above. There was no direct relationship between both footednesses. The results of the current questionnaire, when outcomes of the items on foot were excluded, were nearly the same as was reported in the previous study.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the practice variability from a developmental point of view. The effects of practice variability were analysed with reference to two factors; (a) throwing distance, and (b) throwing direction. Subjects were 192 males; 64 preschool elementary school children and college students respectively. The task assigned was to throw 100 g beanbags at specified target sat in a fixed chair. All subjects practiced four blocks of 8 trials giving a total of 32 trials. After that, 2 test blocks of 8 trials were given. In the first test block, the target was placed on the standard target (criteria distance and direction). In the second test block, the target was placed on the transfer distance and direction not experienced in practice trials. Subjects in each age group were randomly divided into following four groups according to practice condition: 1) Distance variability 1, Direction variability 1 group (Both target distance and direction were the same with the first test block). 2) Distance variability 1, Direction variability 4 group (Criteria distance, four different directions). 3) Distance variability 4, Direction variability 1 group (Four different distances, criteria direction). 4) Distance variability 4, Direction variability 4 group (Four different distances and directions, no criteria target). The results were as follows: 1) Preschool and school children assigned a variety of practice performed significantly better than specific-practice group. 2) For preschool children, there was significant variability effect in direction factor. 3) For school children, there was significant variability effect in distance factor. 4) For college students, there were no variability effects, both in distance an direction factors. From these results, it is suggested that there is the best period and the best parameter of variability for practice variability to operate effectively.