Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 34 , Issue 4
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages Cover11-
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages Cover12-
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (206K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages App5-
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Rie Yamada
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 275-292
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was said that the Kurume P.O.W. (prisoners of war) Camp was the worst camp of the P.O.W. Camps in Japan during the First World War, because the Camp was imperfectly equipped and the Camp Authority treatred German war-prisoners harshly. The purpose of this paper was to clarify Turnen and sports activities of German war-prisoners in the Kurume P.O.W. Camp. The historical materials used for this paper were collected mainly from the newspaper "Turnen und Sport" which was written and published by the German war-prisoners in the Kurume P. O. W. Camp. The findings of this study were summarized as follows: The Kurume P. O. W. Camp had two playgrounds (a big ground and a center ground) and a track at the corner of the Camp. In adittion, there was one tennis court and one Faustball-field for officers, and one mini-tennis court for lower ranked officers. German prisoners organized various clubs and they were very keen on Turnen and sports activities such as gymnastics, football, tennis, hockey, Schlagball, Faustball, boxing and wrestling. These activities Were very important for the health of body and mind of German prisoners. The fact that German war-prisoners practiced these sports and Turnen diligently under the severe circumstances of camp life, in the dawn of sport in Japan, should not be neglected in considering the history of sport in Japan.
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  • Masato Tanaka
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 293-303
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes and developmental differences of representation in the process of children's motor proficiency, and whether the changes of representation were constrained by developmental stages. The subjects used in this experiment were third, fifth and seventh grade children who were in different developmental stages. They were unable to perform "backward roll on the bar" motor task prior to this experiment. This experiment was composed of three main phases; demonstration VTR, trials and, introspection of representation, and they were repeated. The experiment continued until the subjects were successful in the task, i.e. for 4-7 weeks (22-54 trials in all). After the experiment, the representation of each subject was categorized into visual and motor representation, with the latter further divided into spatial, temporal and kinetic representations. the frequencies and contents of representation were then analyzed. The summary of the results is: the frequencies of motor representation were higher than the frequencies of visual representation, and the older subjects showed them earlier in the process of motor proficiency than the younger one. The frequencies of representation increased with motor proficiency but the contents of representation did not change with proficiency, further, such changes were found to be equal within each grade. But the frequencies and contents of representation in the same motor proficiency were different with each grade. These results suggest that the development of representation is composed of stages, and representation changes continuously within each developmental stage and that these changes are being different according to their respective developmental stages which in turn indicates the existence of constraint based on developmental stages.
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  • Yasushi Mori, Toyohiko Ito, Kazushige Toyoda, Toshiro Endo
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 305-316
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purpose of this study was to make clear the bases and functions of coaches' social power. Three hunderd and eighty-nine players, belonging in highschool sport clubs, were administered two questionaires; one was to measure the bases of the power their coaches had, the other was to measure players' estimation of influences from coaches and their adaptability to sport activities in the clubs. From the result of factor analysis, six bases of the power were extracted as the factors; expertise-referability, apprehension to punishment, expectation of benefit, enthusiasm of coaches, legitimacy, and affiliation to and acceptance from coaches. Then, the power of coaches were differentiated into six types in terms of the bases. The functions of each type of power were examined by means of multiple regression analysis. It was found that coaches' personal power which included expert-reference, benefit, enthusiasm and affiliation-acceptance power had mainly contributed to coaches' influence. Especially, benefit and enthusiasm power had been playing crucial roles in coaching. On the other hand, punishment and legitimate power, so-called position power, were found not to have significant positive effects. It was speculated that influences based on punishment power could not be accepted privately, and would have negative effects on players' adaptation to activities, and that legitimate power was in existence on personal power.
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  • Enji Okuda
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 317-328
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    It is considered that the cognitive style dimension of reflection-impulsivity should be determined from metacognitive processes. Cognitive monitoring, which plays an important part in metacognition, includes four aspects (metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive experience,cognitive goal, and cognitive strategy) in the metacognitive and cognitive processes. The purpose of this study was 1) to examine the cognitive style differences on the metacognitive processes, 2) to clarify the relation between the level of metacognitive knowledge and motor performance. Two groups were chosen from 268 fifth grade boys on the basis of latency and errors on the Matching Familiar Figures test: 25 reflective subjects (R group) and 25 impulsive subjects group (I group). Each group performed serial jumping tasks. The tasks were comprised of easy, middle and difficult level tasks that were determined by operating the kinds of colored hops. Each group was individually interviewed about the dependent variables of cognitive monitoring, and the checklist of awareness of cognitive strategies was administered. The main reuslts obtained were as follows: 1) The I group had a significantly lower level of metacognitive knowledge and a lower awareness of cognitive strategies than the R group on the difficult task. And the I group evaluated their motor performance better than the R group, although the I group performed with more errors than the R group on the difficult task. 2) Correlations revealed that the children's level of metacognitive knowledge was significantly related to motor performance: the more subjects were aware of the nature of performing tasks and strategies, the better they were performing.
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  • Shin-ichi Demura, Hiroshi Naka
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 329-344
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The first purpose of the present study was to make out the skill tests in volleyball games and examine the reliabilities and objectivities of the tests. Further, the second purpose was to clarify the structure of the group skills in games. Team performance in volleyball games could be classified into two large categories of performance: 1. the performance to get points: A-1: serving A-2: attacking after reception of attacking from service reception by opponent team A-3: attacking after reception of attacking from reception by opponent team after A-2 2. the performance to get side-outs: B-1: attacking after service reception B-2: attacking after reception of attacking from reception by opponent team after B-1 The volleyball skill tests consisted of six individual skills (Serving, Serve reception, Tossing, Spiking, Blocking and Reception) and attacking performance of opponent team. The observed games were the 1988 Spring League of six Intercollegiate Men's Volleyball in Kansai and the performed skills were rated on 30 games, 128 sets with each team and set. These 11 sets which were randomly selected out of them were rated again to investigate the reliabilities of the tests. To investigate the objectivities of the tests, the 11 sets were further rated by another experienced volleyball player. The reliabilities and objectivities of the tests were estimated by using the method of Cramer's V and rates of contingency. To determine the structure of the games, the number of rallies were counted in games. To further examine the structure of the group skills in volleyball games, the frequency of the appearance of composed skill's patterns of the group skills were calculated and investigated. The major results were as follows: 1) It could be inferred that the volleyball skill tests had relatively high reliabilities and objectivities. 2) As the frequency of rallies in volleyball games were calculated, 81.2% of attacking had been performed by the second rally. 3) The frequency of performance formed by only blocking was significantly greater in A-2. The frequency of attacking performed in liaison with blocking, reception, tossing and spiking was also significant and second greatest in A-2; The attacks of these two skill patterns occupied about 77% in A-2. 4) In A-3, the frequency of attacking performed by only blocking was significantly greater and the frequency of attacking followed spike covering was significantly smaller. 5) 91.7% of attacking from service reception (B-1) was performed in liaison with service reception, tossing and spiking. 6) The frequency of attacking performed by only blocking was significantly higher among the composed skill patterns in B-2.
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  • Tae-seop Park, Yoshiyuki Matsuura, Atsushi Inagaki
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 345-358
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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    The purposes of this study were to clarify the characteristics of physical growth and development of korean school children and to clarify the major influential items of living conditions affecting their physical growth and development. Eight hundred and thirty-five boys and 645 girls, ranging from 8 to 13 years of age, were used in this study. They were students of elementary and junior high schools in Pusan, Korea. Six physique items, 14 physial fitness items, and 52 items of living condition questionnaire, which are clasified into the status of family, home, physical exercise, play, nutrition intake and hereditary influence, were measured or surveyed. Test and measurement were administered in September to October,1987. The results were summarized as follows: 1) For the characteristics of physical growth and development of Korean school children; Fundmental motor skill tended to be at same level as growth of physique domains in both sexes.But, other domains of physical fitness, speed, muscular endurance, flexibility, endurance, balance, agility and coordination, were at a lower level than growth of physique domain in both sexes. 2) For the degree of relationships among physique domains, physical fitness domains and the items of living condition; i) The items of play and nutrition intake were found to be considerably important variables influencing physical growth of school children. ii) The items of physical exercise, play and nutrition intake were found to be considerably important variables influencing physical development of school children. 3) For the degree of relationships among physique domains, physical fitness domains and the status of living condition; i) From the averaged correlation estimated by coefficient of concordance, play was the most important variable influencing physical growth. ii) Play was also the most important variable influencing physical development of boys, but for girl, physical exercise was the most important variable influencing physical development. 4) For the degree of contributions of living condition to physique domains and physical fitness domains; Physical exercise showed the highest multiple correlation and degree of contributions with physical growth and development.
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  • Akira Iiboshi, Michiyoshi Ae, Ken Miyashita, Masaharu Suenaga
    Type: Article
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 359-372
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between muscle strain and the running form at start dash. Twelve male sprinters were divided into two groups, an injured group (N=7) and an uninjured group (N=5), according to their history of previous hamstring muscles strain. They were filmed at the 1st step and the 5th step after starting with crouching style by means of a 16mm motion picture camera. Ground reaction forces were measured with a Kistler force platform. Selected kinematic and kinetic variables, such as joint angles, muscle length of hamstrings and muscle torques of the lower limb, were computed. The results were as follows; 1) The injured group tended to swing the lower leg more forward and the thigh backward less quickly before touchdown than the uninjured group. They also tended to show a greater thigh angle of the support leg at touchdown and to flex the support leg at the 5th step more than the uninjured group. 2) The injured group showed a significantly larger hip extensors torque than the uninjured group during the first half of the support phase for the 5th step. 3) The injured group showed greater shortening velocity of hamstrings during the first half of the support phase for the 5th step. The results suggest that larger hip extensors torque and greater shortening velocity of hamstrings during the first half of the support phase will be factors of the occurrence of muslce strain during start dash. These factors might be due to the start dash form such as contacting with a greater thigh angle of the support leg and flexing the support leg during support phase for the 5th step. This suggests that there exist the running form and the stage of sprinting where hamstring muscles strain is susceptible to occur.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 373-407
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 409-410
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 411-425
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 1-2
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages App6-
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (32K)
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages Cover13-
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (297K)
  • Type: Cover
    1990 Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages Cover14-
    Published: March 01, 1990
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (297K)
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