Taiikugaku kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences)
Online ISSN : 1881-7718
Print ISSN : 0484-6710
ISSN-L : 0484-6710
Volume 34 , Issue 1
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (253K)
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (253K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (150K)
  • Koji Takenaka
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 1-13
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Drug use in athletes is one of the more serious problems in the United States. The purpose of this study is to clarify American athletes' psychological and psycho.social tendencies in competition as well as in every day life in relation to drug use and then to try to discuss the solution to drug problems in athletics. After the nature of drug use by American athletes is introduced, the following two main areas are discussed: stress (competition and life situations) and additional psychological factor; (American pharmacopoeia, sensation seeking, aggression, suspicion against opponent, and immaturity of athletes). Finally drug testing, education, and psychological management (counseling, psychiatric treatment and stress management) are emphasized as methods of coping with drug problems in athletes.
    Download PDF (1455K)
  • Rie Yamada
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 15-30
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influnce of the activities of German war-prisoners in the Bando P.O.W. (prisoner of war) Camp on the development of sport and physical education in Tokushima where the Camp was located. The historical materials used for this paper were collected mainly from newspapers and "Keibi-Keisatsukan-Hokokusho" which was a report on the German prisoners' life in the Bando P.O.W. Camp written by Japanese police sergeants. The findings of this study were summarized as follows: Students and teachers of some elementary and secondary schools went to see German prisoners, activities such as Turnen, football, tennis, and hockey. And several prisoners visited schools to coach them for Turnen. In "German war-prisoners' variety show", German prisoners introduced their Turnen and sport activities such as gymnastics, wrestling, boxing, weight lifting and dance to students and people in Tokushima. "Japan Martial Arts Association Tokushima Branch" set up "Meeting for the Study of German Martial Arts" and invited eleven German prisoners to perform wrestling, boxing and fencing matches. Then the Association sent two Japanese members to the Camp to do further study of those activities. This friendly communications with people of Tokushima which was brought from the German war-prisoners' Turnen and sport activities gave a significant influence on sports in Tokushima, and this fact should not be neglected in the consideration of the history of sport and physical education in Japan.
    Download PDF (1242K)
  • Takeo Takahashi, Yoshinori Okazawa, Satoshi Otomo
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 31-43
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the ALT observation system in physical education, which has become recently adapted as a research instrument on the teaching of physical education in several countries. The various physical education classes of elementary schools were described and analysed through the ALT observation system to compare with the data of foreign countries. The degree how the carereer of teacher and the kind of physical activity selected as the subject matter would affect the results of observation system of acadermic learing times (ALT) in physical edueation was attempted to be found. The relationships between the results obtained through the ALT system and those through the student's evaluation to physical education class were further examined. Main findings were as follows. 1) The funneling effect, that is, the phenomenon in which each percentage of three observational dimensions in the ALT system (physical education content, engagement, And ALT) decreases like the shape of a funnel, was found with the similar results as reported by Godbout, P. and Metzler, M. 2) From a viewpoint of student's lerning behavior, the poor reality of physical education classes was recognized. Several assignments were suggested to improve the teaching in physical education. 3) Experienced teachers showed better results of ALT. That suggests the effectiveness of the ALT system in assessing the teaching skills of physical education teacher. 4) The data of the ALT system, however, were remarkably affected by the kind of physical activity selected as the subject matter. It seems necessary to take account of the effects of this variable in order to establish the criteria of ALT for measuring the effectiveness of the teaching in physical education. 5) Significant correlation between ALT score and the student evaluation to physical education class were recognized, thus the ALT-PE system seemed to be effective in developing the teaching skills to improve the student evaluation.
    Download PDF (1272K)
  • Tamotsu Nishida
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 45-62
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Achievement Motivation in Physical Education Test (AMPET) has been developed by Nishida (1987) as a measure for assessing achievement motivation for learning in physical education. This study attempted to standardize the AMPET by using a large sample. The AMPET has seven 8-item subscales consisted of "learning strategy," "overcoming obstacle,""diligence and seriousness," "competence of motor ability," "value of learning," "anxiety about stress-causing situations," and "failure anxiety," respectively. It also contains an eight-item lie scale. The subjects were 10,055 elementary, junior high, and senior high school students. They were asked to respond to all items of the AMPET along 5-point Likert-type rating scales. The external criteria or variables for testing validity of the AMPET were as follows: a motor ability test, scores in physical education class, teacher's ratings of behavioral characteristics of pupils, the Motive of Academic Achievement Test, interest in physical activities, enjoyment in physical education class, self-evaluation of motor ability, frequencies of physical activity, physical activity time, participation to athletic club, and athletic levels. Split-half and test-retest reliability estimates of the AMPET were sufficiently high. On the basis of means and standard deviations of the AMPET, evaluative norms were established as 5-point ratings. All of the results concerning many external criteria were successful in validating the AMPET. It was concluded that the newly developed test, the AMPET, was reliable, valid, standardized and useful.
    Download PDF (1576K)
  • Mitsugi Ogata, Junzo Nakata, Akio Yamamoto, Kimie Kumayasu
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 63-72
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was to examine overhand throwing motions of adult women. Eleven physical fitness test items and measurement of throwing distance (using softball) were administerd to 96 adult female students. The multiple regression equation to estimate throwing distance was calculated by the stepwise method. The differences between estimated distance and measured distance were calculated. Ten subjects with higher residual were selected as Excellent group, and ten with lower residual were selected as Poor group. Overhand throwing motions of selected subjects were filmed simultaneously from side and overhead view by two cameras. Dynamic variables such as displacement, time, velocity, angle and angular velocity were obtained from film analysis. Excellent group showed longer throwing distance (p&lt0.01), while there was no significant difference in fitness test items between two groups. Excellent group showed higher initial velocity of ball at release (p&lt0.01). Judging from these results, it seems that longer throwing distance was caused by higher initial velocity of ball, and higher initial velocity of ball was produced by rational throwing motions. Characteristics of rational overhand throwing motions of adult women which were verified in this study were as follows: 1) greater backward rotation of shoulder of throwing-hand side in the horizontal plane during preparatory phase (step motion), 2) greater back-swing of throwing-hand during preparatory phase, 3) faster forward rotation of shoulder of throwing-hand side in the horizontal plane during throwing phase (from front foot contact to ball release), 4) skillful whip-like action, 5) well-timed wrist (snap) action. The results of this study suggest that five these points should be emphasized in motor learning of throwing for adult women.
    Download PDF (1029K)
  • Tetsuro Tamaki, Hiroaki Takekura, Takehiko Fujise, Toshitada Yoshioka, ...
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 73-80
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to determine whether a prestretch potentiation of human leg extensor muscle is affected during explosive type of strength training, the squatting jump, counter movement jump, and rebound jump were performed by 24 subjects which were divided consisted of thue 3 groups of althletes, i.e.,swimmers,jumpers, and weight trainers. We regarded swimmer as untrained subject, jumper as trained subject of being characteristic of ballistic jump movement, and weight trainer as specially trained subject on the strenght of leg muscles. Four parameters, such as height of jump, knee angular velocity, positive force integral which would show the use of prestretch potentiation, and coupling-time which would affect the former three parameters, were obtained from the measurement of force-time curve and goniogram. The results indicated that prestretch potentiation was utilized more effectively in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. The use of prestretch potentiation may increase the first half of knee extension speed, and the strength training for the muscle contractile component may increase the latter half of knee extension speed during jumping action. The training effect on prestretch potentiation of skeletal muscle plays an important role during explosive type of jumping action. The present findings thus futher support the concept of specificity of the muscle strength training. Elastic component of the muscle is also discussed.
    Download PDF (741K)
  • Kaoru Takamatsu, Yoshihiro Sato, Masaaki Miyasaka, Hidezo Takamori
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 81-88
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The level and type of anaerobic power for forward and back players of rugby football were investigated. Subjects were thirty-five college rugby football players and sixteen college male sprinters and throwers. Peak frequency of revolution and peak power during 7-s pedalling were measured at torques of 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 kgm. The level of anaerobic power was determined by the maximum peak power and its relative value to body weight. The type of anaerobic power was determined by the coefficients of linear equation representing relationship between peak frequency of revolution and torque.Results were as follows; 1) Maximum anaerobic power of forward players was larger than that of back players, but the relative value to body weight was smaller. 2) Maximum anaerobic power and the relative value to body weight for forward or back players of varsity team were larger than those of the farm team. 3) Maximum anaerobic power and the relative value to body weight of foward players were smaller than those of the throwers. The maximum anaerobic power relative to body weight of back players was smaller than that of the sprinters, but no difference in maximum anaerobic power. 4) Foward players were characterized as strength type because they exerted higher level of anaerobic power in the larger torques. On the other hand, back players were characterized as speed type because they were superior in the smaller torques. 5) Rugby football players were characterized as speed type in comparison with the throwers, but as strength type compared with the sprinters.
    Download PDF (675K)
  • Kunio Aoki
    Type: Article
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 89-100
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was designed to examine the reasons of senior high school athletes' keeking in or dropping out of their sport team activities. The data was obtained by questionnaries distributed to 550 keep-ups and 291 drop-outs, and Hayashi's quantification theory II was applied to the data. Main findings are as follows: 1. The most influential items for dropping out are "conflicts and disagreements with coaches or teammates", "having other things to do" and "being incompatible with study" for males, and "injuries","conflicts and disagreements with coaches or teammates" and "having other things to do" for females. 2. Besides the items stated above, the most influential item for dropping out, for both males and females, is such a self-panishing one as "weakness of one's own will". 3. The most influential factor of determining keeping in or dropping out is their "daily sport activities" which consists of whether or not they are regular members, they perceive their training hard, they experience impression, and they like their coaches. 4. In case of females, the factor "family environment" determines keeping in or dropping out more strongly than the factors which concern to their own. This is supposed to be the reflection of female's dependent and conformable psychological traits. 5. Males who perceive their team activities hard but are satisfied with coaches, are regular members, and have less study time, and females who acknowledge their sport team activities in their school active, perceive their team activities are not so hard, experience more impression, are satisfied with coaches, are starters, and have less achievement motives tend to be promoted to keep in their sport team activities.
    Download PDF (1147K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 101-102
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (105K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 103-108
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (320K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 109-114
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (326K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 115-
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (66K)
  • Type: Bibliography
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 116-
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Type: Appendix
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 117-
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (32K)
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 118-
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (167K)
  • Type: Cover
    1989 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 118-
    Published: June 01, 1989
    Released: September 27, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (167K)
feedback
Top