The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning effect of pattern recognition on a tennis net-player's anticipation. An experiment was conducted to determine whether the learning of pattern recognition with the film was significantly effective in improving the supped and accuracy of motor response to the film stimulus of the opposing passer's return. Subjects were 12 male beginners (less than 3 years experienced), 12 male intermediaries (3-8 years experienced), and 10 male advanced players (more than 8 years experienced). And the first two groups were given instrucitons and KR with the films in the learning session. The major results are as follows: 1) In the pre-learning reaciton time test to the film stimulus, the reaction time (the time from the impact to the moment of lifting a leg) of both the beginners and the intermediaries were significantly longer than that of the advanced. And no significant differences among three groups were found on the correct response rate in the film series of +8 (continue to show the film to the post-impact 8th frame). But in the film series of 0 (to the impact frame), both the beginners and the intermediaries showed significantly smaller values than the advanced. 2) During the learning session, the correct answer rates of both the beginners and the intermediaries on pass-lob and cross-straight anticipation were significantly increased. 3) In the post-learning reaction time test, the reaction time of both the beginners and the intermediaries were significantly shortened, and they showed smaller values thant the advanced. And the correct response rates of both groups in the film series of 0 were also significantly increased. 4) The learning effect of the intermediaries was significnatly greater than that of the beginners. These results suggest that the learning of pattern recognition with the film has a noticeable effect on improvement in anticipation and the speed and accuracy of motor response to the opposing passer's return.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high intensity jump training on the proportion of slow-twitch (ST) and fast-twitch (FT) fibers in skeletal muscle from male Wistar strain rats (6 weeks after birth, n=40). Animals were assigned to one of four groups: a control group (n=10) and three exercise groups: Jump A (JA n=10), Jump B (JB n=10), Jump (JC n=10). Training exercise consisted of successive jumping trials of 20 repetitions (JAgroup), 50 reps. (JB group) and 50 reps. ×2 sets (JC group) on the jump height of about 2.3-fold of their body length (tail excluded). Exercise groups were trained 6 days a week for 10 weeks. After the training period, fiber type proportion of the M. gastrocnemius was histochemically examined. The results were summarized as follows: 1) The body weight in three training groups was significantly smaller than that of the control group. 2) Relative muscle weight (muscle weight/body weight) of the M. gastrocnemius in the JC group was significantly larger than that of the control group. 3) At deep region of M. gastrocnemius in JC group, significant decreases in the percentage of ST fibers were observed with concomitant increases in the FT population. These results suggest that the alteration of ST fibers to FT fibers in rats observed after high intensity jump training may be due to the transformation of ST fibers to FT fibers.
Attempts were made to clarify whether or not fiber composition of the m. vastus lateralis could be predicted with running performance. Biopsy samples from 32 well-trained and 17 untrained adult males were examined for the percentage area of fast-twitch (FT) and slow-twitch (ST) fibers which might be related to the physical performance better than the fiber type distribution. In addition, each subject completed 50-m sprint and 12-min run tests. A multiple regression analysis revealed that in the trained males predictive accuracy (R^2) for the percentage area of FT fibers (% areaFT) from the ratio of a 50-m sprint speed to a 12-min run speed (50 m・S/12 min・S) was higher than that from most of other variables,e.g. 50 m・S, 12 min・S, or the combination of 50 m・S and 12 min・S; R^2 of 50 m・S/12 min・S was 80.3%(p<0.05). A positive correlation between 50 m・S/12 min・S and %areaFT also existed for the untrained subjects (R^2=63.7%, p<0.05). The linear regression equations of %areaFT (Y) on 50 m・S/12 min・S (X)were Y=-68.6 + 76.2X (r=0.896, p<0.05) and Y=-47.5 + 61.1X (r=0.798, p<0.05) for the trained and untrained males, respectively. There was no significant difference in the regression equations between the trained and untrained males. For all subjects, the equation was Y=-59.8 + 69.8X (r=0.876, p<0.05) and the standard error of estimate of %areaFT on 50 m・S/12 min . S was 8.86%. These results suggest that the performances of a 50-m sprint and a 12-min run are valuable indicators in, accurately, easily and noninvasively, predicting the percentage area of FT and ST fibers of the m. vastus lateralis from adult male.
The intention of this Study was to investigate the changes of the technique and physical fitness of the beginners after one-year training of the instep kick in football. The subjects were nine students (18-19 years old) who undertook the training regimen. The control group consisted of two players of the Japan junior national team (19 years old). The training lasting 20 minutes was carried out twice a week for one year except the vacation of the university. Data were collected while the subjects kicking a standing ball by the instep kick three times by means of videotape together with the EMG recording. Their physique and physical fitness were also measured. The following findings were obtained. 1) The motion analysis showed an increase in the range of the forward swing of the kicking leg, the shift range of the hip, the swing speed of the leg, and the angle of the ankle joint at the impact. They were considered to be the factors contributing to the increase of the ball speed. 2) The contraction patterns of the M. biceps femoris and M. quadriceps femoris as revealed by the EMG indicated the active extension of the hip joint. The improvement of the fixation of the ankle joint was recognized by the changes in the discharge of the M. tibialis antrior and M. gastrocnemius in the EMG. 3) There was a little influence of the one-year training on the physical fitness. It can be said that the improvements were mainly attained in the skill as shown by 1) and 2).
The purpose of this study was to make clear the following: (1) the causal attributions about the athletes with problems, and (2) the relation between causal attributions and coaching methods from athletes' point of view. The subjects were 243 university athletes. They were asked to read 6 different fictitious scenarios describing the problems of the athletes. They wer then requested (1) to make causal attributions about the athletes' problems into 8 causal factors such as athlete's lack of ability and coach's inappropriate coaching method etc, (2) to assess the possibility for the athlete to show a better athletic record, (3) to indicate the degree of affective reactions to the athlete, and (4) to respond to two bipolar scales, describing how to coach the athlete; verbal feedback (encouragement vs. criticism) and personal coaching (required vs. not required). Main results were as follows: 1. The athletes attributed the causes of the problems to their inappropriate exercise, poor effort, personality problems, and coach's inappropriate coaching method. On the other hand, the lack of ability of atheletes was viewed as much less of a factor determining the problems of athletes. These results supported the ego-diffensive attributions. 2. From the path analysis, it was found that the extent of attribution to the athlete's lack of ability, poor effort, and personality problem, and coach's inappropriate coaching method could predict the coaching methods for the athletes. These results supported the Weiner's (1986) causal attribution model of motivation and emotion.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify how the movement process changed in the cross-jump suited one's pace and how the process of change influenced in the failure of cross-jump in the Prescribed width. The experiment was devided into two parts. In the experiment l, the movement process of cross-jump suited one's pace was analyzed and the jump process of those who failed the cross-jump was analyzed in the experiment 2. Kindergarten childeren from 5 to 6 years of age (n=152) participated in these experiments. The findings were summarized as follows: 1. The process of jump suited one's pace was structured from three phases of a considerable increase -maximum (or peak)- gradual decease of jump distance. 2. It was inferred that the change process of the considerable increase-maximum (or peak)-gradual decrease influenced in the failure of cross-jump. 3. The failure of cross-jump occured more often in case of the big difference between prescribed width and jump distance. 4. Those who failed the cross-jump leaped over irregularly at a time and it was assumed that the irregular jump brought about a failure to the smooth movement.