The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of teacher behavior, especially the interaction behavior in Physical education class on the student learning behavior (ALT-PE) and the learning effectiveness. Sixty-four physical education classes taught by 22 elementary school terchers (contained 3 Student teacher) were studied for this purpose. In order to analyze the teacher and student behavior during physical education class, the instruments of CAFISA and ALT-PE Observation System were used. An instrument of the student evaluation to physical education class (questionare) was applied to measure the student learning effectiveness. Main findings are as follows; 1) "Praise or encouragement" showed significant positive correlations with ALT, motor ALT, and so on. But "Criticism" had a significant negative correlation with ALT. These results were consistent with the preceding studies. Thus, it was confirmed in this study that teacher's positive interaction would make student learn actively in the class. 2) "Praise or encouragement" had significant positive correlations With 7 items of the student evaluation instrument. Conversely, "Criticism" showed significant negative correlations with 6 items of it. "Lecturing and information giving" and "Direction" also showed negative correlations with the student evaluation. 3) These facts suggest the effect of the teacher behavior in which the frequent positive interactions lead to better learning results and the frequent negative interactions bring worse results.
The purposes of this study were to clarify the structure of subjective information regarding movement of sprint running and to compare these structures among four groups: sprinter, distance runner, jumper and thrower. Thirteen hundred and six college athletes participated in this study. The first questionnaire was designed to determine the key items to investigate the structure of subjective information regarding the movement of sprint running. Through the administration of first questionnaire, 224 items were chosen. The degree of importance of each item was assessed on 7-point scale. MDSCAL was applied to dissimilarity matrix by each part of the body: head, arms, torso and legs, separately and the extracted dimensions were rotated orthogonally based upon Normal Varimax cirterion idea. Moreover orthogonal Procrustes rotation and Schonemann's general Procrustes rotation were applied in order to facilitate comparison and similarity of con-figurations and dimensions of these different groups were evaluated by coefficient of congruence, root mean square deviation and sum of squared error. The main results were as follows: 1) Three-dimensional spaces for head and torso, and 4.dimensional spaces for arms and legs were constructed. Stressl's were from 0.141 to 0.203 and explanatory rate were from 0.602 to 0.816. 2) The Euclidean distance model was more appropriate for representation of the structure of these information than factor (vector) model because of efficiency of explanation and interpretability. 3) Strong similarity between most of dimensions for different groups was observed in all parts of the body, so it could be inferred that these dimensions are some of the most general
There were 21, 282 accidental injuries which occurred among primary school children,junior and senior high school students in Kyoto Prefecture during the period from April 1984 to March 1985. In order to obtain a clue for prevention of accidents during the physical education class, records of these accidents were analysed. Among primary school children, the number of accidental injuries during the physical education class increased as the grade went up, and so did the ratio of those to all the injuries of each grade. The same could be said to the ratio of those among junior and seniro high school students. As to dislocations, sprains, and fractures, their respective proportions of the injuries during the physical education class to all the injuries of each category were considerably great. When the multidimensional frequency table of injuries concerning the six factors (i.e., kind of the injury, region of the body injured, occasion, weather, day of the week and sex) were analyzed by using a supposed log-linear model, the well fitted log-linear model contained the six main effect terms and several interaction terms caused by two factors and three factors in all the four groups according to the grade. Results above indicate that the frequencies of accidental injuries during the physical education class and during all the other school hours were different according to kind of the injury in all groups, and furthermore, the relation between these two factors fluctuated by region of the body injured. It is also suggested that the appearance of accidental injuries became more complicated as the grade went up. From the model, it is indicated that the ratio of injuries occurred during the physical education class (the number of injuries during the physical education class/the number of injuries during all the other school hours) was considerably great in cases of dislocations and sprains on the trunk among primary school children, those on the head, the face and the neck among junior high school students, and those on the arm among high school students. It is also indicated that the expected number of injuries during the physical education class was greater in cases of dislocations and sprains on the arm among primary school children, and those on the leg among junior and senior high school students.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of arm swing on the generation of twisting from somersault. By using a human body model composed of three geometric solids, mechanism of generation of twisting during a somersault was confirmed theoretically. Then, quantitative calculation was done based on the model. In this model a performer initially took a symmetrical position with both arms above the head, and then swung down one arm laterally. To examine the validation of the model, several twist-somersaults were analyzed by a 3-dimensional cinematography (DLT method) and compared with the model. Two male proficient gymnasts were selected as subjects and were asked to perform forward twist-somersaults of 1/2, 1 and 3/2 revolutions from a vaulting horse. The results were summarized as follows: 1) The angular velocities of the twist and somersault, moment of inertia, and the tilting of a body's principal axis of inertia from its original position calculated from the model were compared with the measured data. The mean relative errors between the data from simulation model and the measured were less than 4.1%. 2) An asymmetrical arm swing could generate a twist about the longitudinal axis of the body during a somersault. Large angular velocity of the somersault before the change in the form and large swing angle of arm were effective for the generation of twisting. 3) The direction of the twist depended upon direcitons of the initial somersault and the arm swing.
Considerable research has been conducted on burnout syndrome in the field of human services. Lately this concept has been applied to the psychological problems of the athlete, and has often been discussed as athletes' burnout. However, some current definitions are vague, or overly inclusive. Staleness and overtraining similar to burnout have been discussed without proper differentiation of these concepts. For application of this concept to the athlete, a certain standard must be defined. Therefore, it is attempted in this paper to consider and clarify burnout syndrome by reviewing previous studies of burnout. The review was looking on three essential factors-a premorbid character, situation and symptoms. The cases which met our criteria for burnout syndrome were compared with other clinical figures. Common characters as melancholic type or immodithymia were recognized as a premorbid character. Further it was assumed that burnout cases would cling tenaciously to objects or situation (e.g. job), and then suffer serious stress which eventually leads to the disease. Next, based upon this review we attempted to present some conceptual framework for the study of athletes' burnout. Staleness can be regarded as one prodrome or symptom of burnout in sports. Overtraining can be regarded as a situational factor in which psychosomatic dissipation or burnout occur rather than as a category of disease. In determining the diagnostic criteria of athletes' burnout, we have to consider not only a consequence such as a decrease in athletic motivation and a drop out from sports but also a premorbid character and situations, especially the clinging to sports in object relationship.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the visual field constricts or extends during exercise on the basis of two experiments. In the experiment 1, whether the brightness of the peripheral visual field attenuates or sensitizes during exercise was investigated by using the peripheral visual reaction time. The visual field during exercise was investigated in the experiment 2. From this study, it became clear that the visual field constricts during exercise. It was conjectured that the visual filed constricts under the condition over 140-150 beats/min (heart rate). The stricture ratio of the visual field was about 10% of the visual field before exercise. It was conjectured that after exercise, the visual field recovers quickly in a few minutes, but, once recovered, the visual filed neither constricts nor extends again.
The study in changes of motor ability structure affected by aging is considered to be an important field in the study of growth and development. But because the concepts to describe the changes in motor ability structure lack clarity and unity, and because how the changes are recognized depends on researcher's subjective interpretation of factors, the results from different studies cannot be organized effectively. In this study concepts are grouped and arranged with their respective metrical expressions considered while examining the methods of interpreting factors logically. As a result, based on the fact that traditional factorial differentiation id naturally different from the differentiation or integration of individual abilities, three concepts such as specificity, fusion and simplification are suggested as new ideas. When describing them, metrical expression is proposed as a means of interpreting factors objectively.